Office of Operations Active Transportation and Demand Management

Guide for Highway Capacity and Operations Analysis of Active Transportation and Demand Management Strategies

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Purpose

2 The ATDM Strategy Tool Box

2.1 Active Traffic Management

2.2 Active Demand Management

2.3 Active Parking Management

3 Measuring the Success of ATDM Implementation

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Criteria for ATDM Performance Measurement

3.3 Performance Measures (Measures of Effectiveness) for ATDM Analysis

3.4 Identifying Temporal Scope for the Performance Measure Computation

3.5 Example Performance Characteristics of Facilities

4 Overview of ATDM Analysis Methodology

4.1 Overview

4.2 The “Before ATDM” Analysis

4.3 The “After ATDM” Analysis

4.4 The “Equilibrium Effects of ATDM” Analysis

5 Detailed Methodology: Step-by-Step

5.1 Step 1: Preparation

5.2 Step 2: Generate Scenarios

5.3 Step 3: Apply Operations Model to Scenarios

5.4 Step 4: Compute MOEs (Before ATDM)

5.5 Step 5: Design ATDM Strategy

5.6 Step 6: Convert Strategy into Operations Inputs

5.7 Step 7: Apply Operations Analysis Tool (“After” Analysis)

5.8 Step 8: Compute MOEs (“After” Condition)

6 Example Applications

6.1 Before ATDM Analysis

6.2 Example #1 – Convert HOV to HOT Lane

6.3 Example #2 – Dynamic Ramp Metering

6.4 Example #3 – Incident TDM

7 Use of Alternative Tools

8 Summary

9 References

10 Works Cited

Appendix A: Speed/Capacity for Weather

Appendix B: Incident Probabilities and Duration

Estimate Incident Probabilities for the Study Period

Estimate Average Incident Duration

Prediction of Facility Crashes

Appendix C: Speed/Capacity for Incidents

Freeway Free-Flow Speed Adjustments for Incidents

Appendix D: Speed/Capacity for Work Zones

2010 HCM Capacity Adjustments for Freeway Work Zones

SHRP 2-L08 Capacity Adjustments for Freeway Work Zones

Free-Flow Speed Adjustments for Freeway Work Zones

Appendix E: Measures of Effectiveness

Computation of Annual VMT

Computation of Annual VHT

Computation of Annual VHD

Computation of Annual Delay per VMT

Computation of Annual Average Speed

Computation of Reliability Statistic

Appendix F: Speed/Capacity for Incident Duration Reductions

Appendix G: Speed/Capacity for HOV/HOT Lane Strategies

Convert Mixed-Flow to HOV

HOV Lanes Opened to All

Convert Lanes to HOT Lanes

HOT Lanes Opened to All

Appendix H: Speed/Capacity for Shoulder/Median Lane Strategies

Open Shoulders As Auxiliary Lanes Between Adjacent On- and Off-Ramps

Open Shoulders To Buses Only

Open Shoulders To HOVs Only

Open Shoulders To All Traffic

Open Median To Buses Only

Open Median To HOVs Only

Open Median To All Traffic

Appendix I: Speed/Capacity for Ramp Metering Strategies

Locally Dynamic

Appendix J: Demand Effects of Tolls

Appendix K: Long-Term Demand Effects

Employer-Based TDM Plans

Appendix L: Designing an ATDM Program

Travel Demand Management Plans

Weather Responsive Traffic Management Plans

Traffic Incident Management Plans

Work Zone Transportation Management Plans

Appendix M: The Equilibrium Effects of ATDM

Overview of Equilibration Process

Step 9: Estimate Long-Term Effects

Step 10: Apply Operations Tool

Step 11: Equilibrate Results

Step 12: Compute MOEs (Equilibrated)

List of Tables

Table 1: Example ATDM Approaches Strategies

Table 2: Typical Performance Measures U.S. Freeways

Table 3: Typical Reliability Statistics for U.S. Arterials

Table 4: Definitions of Key Temporal and Geographic Terms

Table 5: Example Weather Data for ATDM Analysis

Table 6: Example Incident Data for ATDM Analysis

Table 7: Example Work Zone Data for ATDM Analysis

Table 8: Example Output of Demand Level Selection Step

Table 9: Example Scenario Selection

Table 10: Example MOEs Output

Table 11: Example Summary Statistics for Before ATDM Condition

Table 12: ATDM Strategies Currently Addressed by the Methodology

Table 13: Illustrative Coding of TDM Plans for ATDM Analysis

Table 14: Illustrative Coding of Weather TMP Plans for ATDM Analysis

Table 15: Illustrative Coding of TIM Plans for ATDM Analysis

Table 16: Illustrative Demand Adjustment Factor Inputs for TDM Plans

Table 17: Automated Application of User-Specified ATDM Control Strategy Adjustments

Table 18: Input Data for Seed File (Analysis Period #1)

Table 19: Demand Variability Data for Example Problem

Table 20: Weather Probability, Capacity, Speed and Demand Data for Example Problem

Table 21: Incident Probability, Capacity, Speed and Demand Data for Example Problem

Table 22: Work Zone Probability, Capacity, Speed and Demand Data for Example Problem

Table 23: Thirty Scenarios Selected for HCM Analysis for Example Problem

Table 24: Before ATDM Detailed Scenario Results

Table 25: Before ATDM – Summary Results

Table 26: Scenario-Specific Results – HOT Lane

Table 27: Summary Results – HOT Lane

Table 28: Detailed Scenario Results – HOT + Dynamic Metering

Table 29: Summary Results – HOT + Dynamic Metering

Table 30: Detailed Scenario Results – HOT + Meter + TDM

Table 31: Summary Results – HOT + Meter + TDM

Table 32: Summary Results – Combined Effects ATDM Plan

Table 33: HCM Freeway Capacity Reductions for Weather

Table 34: SHRP 2-L08 Freeway Capacity and Speed Adjustments for Weather

Table 35: SHRP 2-L08 Weather Type Definitions for Freeways

Table 36: Selected Weather Adjustments for ATDM Example Problem

Table 37: Default Proportions for Incident Severity

Table 38: Default Proportions for Incident Lane Blockage

Table 39: Incident Duration by Crash Severity Type

Table 40: Residual Freeway Capacity in Incident Zones per the HCM

Table 41: Capacity Adjustment Factors for Incident Zones per SHRP 2-L08

Table 42: Capacities of Freeway Work Zones

Table 43: Capacity Adjustment Factors For Work Zones

Table 44: SHRP 2-L08 Work Zone Capacity Adjustment Factors

Table 45: Example Computation of PTI

Table 46: Appropriate Gamma Diversion Parameters According to Delay of Alternate Route

Table 47: Prototypical Effectiveness of TDM at Auto Demand Reduction

Table 48: Possible Incident Management Strategies and Their Effects on Capacity and Speed

Table 49: Value of Time for Major Urban Areas

List of Figures

Figure 1: The Active Management Cycle

Figure 2: Freeway Ramp Metering, SR 94, Lemon Grove, California

Figure 3: Minnesota Dynamic Pricing for HOT Lanes

Figure 4: U.S. 101 Weekday Travel Time Rate Distribution (24 hours/day)

Figure 5: U.S. 101 Weekday AM Peak Period Travel Time Rate Distribution

Figure 6: Flow Chart of ATDM Analysis Process

Figure 7: Study Section, Study Period, and Reliability Reporting Period

Figure 8: Assignment of Probabilities to Percentile Demand Levels

Figure 9: Example Application Study Site

Figure 10: Capacity Gained by Reducing Incident Duration

Figure 11: Flow Chart of ATDM Analysis Process – With Equilibration

Figure 12: Sketch Planning Model Flow Chart

Figure 13: Example Freeway Facility Origins and Destinations

Figure 14: Example Street Origins and Destinations

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U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
Office of Operations
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov

Publication #: FHWA-HOP-13-042

June 2013

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