Public Perception of Safety Messages and Public Service Announcements on Dynamic Message Signs in Rural Areas
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U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
Office of Operations
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
FHWA-HOP-16-048
June 2016
Notice
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Technical Report Documentation Page
1. Report No. FHWA-HOP-16-048 |
2. Government Accession No. | 3. Recipient's Catalog No. | |
4. Title and Subtitle Public Perception of Safety Messages and Public Service Announcements on Dynamic Message Signs in Rural Areas |
5. Report Date June 2016 |
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6. Performing Organization Code |
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7. Author(s) Jeremy Schroeder, Eric Plapper, Henry Zeng, Bob Krile (Battelle) |
8. Performing Organization Report No. | ||
9. Performing Organization Name and Address Battelle 505 King Avenue Columbus, OH 43201 |
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS) | ||
11. Contract or Grant No. Contract No. DTFH61-12-D-00046; Task Order No. T-5012 |
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12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Office of Operations 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE Washington, D.C. 20590 |
13. Type of Report and Period Covered Final Report; April 2015-March 2016 |
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14. Sponsoring Agency Code HOTM |
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15. Supplementary Notes Project performed in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration and Transportation Management Center (TMC) Pooled Fund Study (PFS). Jimmy Chu (Task Manager) |
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16. Abstract The objective of this project was to assess the effectiveness and potential benefits of posting public service announcements (PSAs) in rural areas by surveying a variety of travelers in those areas, including local residents, tourists, and long-haul truck drivers. This project addressed a number of questions related to safety awareness and PSA messages on dynamic message signs (DMS), including: driver awareness, driver understanding, changes in driver behavior, and drivers' opinions. Study findings provide an understanding of the usefulness and effectiveness of using DMS for safety and PSA campaigns, providing a basis for recommendations to influence and/or improve agencies'; guidelines, policies and operations on using DMS as a tool for safety and public service campaigns. |
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17. Key Words Dynamic Message Sign, DMS, Public Safety Announcements, Safety Messages |
18. Distribution Statement No restriction |
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19. Security Classif. (of this report) Unclassified |
20. Security Classif. (of this page) Unclassified |
21. No. of Pages 144 |
22. Price |
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
- CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
- CHAPTER 2. SURVEY DESIGN METHODOLOGY
- CHAPTER 3. TRAVELER INTERCEPT SURVEY DATA COLLECTION
- CHAPTER 4. ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY
- CHAPTER 5. FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
- APPENDIX A: SITE QUESTIONNAIRES
- APPENDIX B: COMMENTS FROM SURVEY PARTICIPANTS
- APPENDIX C: ODDS RATIO GRAPHS FOR EVALUATION OF HYPOTHESES
- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
List of Figures
- Figure 1. Map. The Study Corridors.
- Figure 2. Chart. Responsibilities for Survey Administration.
- Figure 3. Map. DMS Locations on the I-70 Study Corridor.
- Figure 4. Map. Three Minnesota DOT DMS locations on the I-94 Minnesota Study Corridor, including one Located in Wisconsin.
- Figure 5. Map. Current DMS Locations on the I-94 Wisconsin Study Corridor from Madison (bottom right) Northwest through Eau Claire (top left).
- Figure 6. Map. DMS Locations on the I-44 Study Corridor.
- Figure 7. Map. DMS Locations on the I-80 Study Corridor.
- Figure 8. Graph. Percentage of Each Traveler Type by Site.
- Figure 9. Graph. Percentage of Gender in Each Site.
- Figure 10. Graph. Frequency of Seeing Safety Campaign Messages on DMS.
- Figure 11. Graph. Percentage of Respondents that Reported Seeing the Posted Safety-Related Messages on DMS.
- Figure 12. Graph. Safety-Related Message Interpretation by Site.
- Figure 13. Graph. Responses to "Do You Agree that the Identified DMS was Understandable?" by Survey Round.
- Figure 14. Graph. Respondents' Understanding of Messages Displayed at Other Sites.
- Figure 15. Graph. Participant Responses on whether Safety-Related DMS Cause Drivers to Slow Down to read the message.
- Figure 16. Graph. Responses to "Did You Do Anything Differently?" by Site.
- Figure 17. Graph. Participant Responses Regarding whether Safety-Related DMS Cause Behavior Changes.
- Figure 18. Graph. Agreement on Whether the Identified Message is Appropriate.
- Figure 19. Graph. Respondent Opinions that Messages Displayed at Other Sites are Inappropriate
- Figure 20. Graph. Agreement on Whether the Identified Message Raised Traveler Awareness of the Issue.
- Figure 21. Graph. Respondent Opinions that Messages Displayed at Other Sites Increased their Awareness of an Issue.
- Figure 22. Graph. Responses for Each Survey Round about Whether the Specific Messages are Displayed too Often.
- Figure 23. Graph. Responses about Whether Travelers are More Likely to Stop Reading DMS if the Same Message is Repeatedly Seen.
- Figure 24. Graph. Responses on the Best Way of Communicating Safety-Related Information.
- Figure 25. Graph. Responses on What Message Types should be Displayed on DMS.
- Figure C-1. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Awareness Hypothesis of Observing an Actual Safety Message and/or PSA on a DMS in Nevada.
- Figure C-2. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Awareness Hypothesis of Observing an Actual Safety Message and/or PSA on a DMS in Minnesota/Wisconsin.
- Figure C-3. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Awareness Hypothesis of Observing an Actual Safety Message and/or PSA on a DMS in Kansas.
- Figure C-4. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Awareness Hypothesis of Observing an Actual Safety Message and/or PSA on a DMS in Missouri.
- Figure C-5. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Understanding Hypothesis on Understanding of the Listed Message in Nevada.
- Figure C-6. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Understanding Hypothesis on Understanding of the Listed Message in Minnesota/Wisconsin.
- Figure C-7. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Understanding Hypothesis on Understanding of the Listed Message in Kansas.
- Figure C-8. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Understanding Hypothesis on Understanding of the Listed Message in Missouri.
- Figure C-9. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Understanding Hypothesis on Whether the Message is Understandable in Nevada.
- Figure C-10. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Understanding Hypothesis on Whether the Message is Understandable in Minnesota/Wisconsin.
- Figure C-11. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Understanding Hypothesis on Whether the Message is Understandable in Kansas.
- Figure C-12. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Understanding Hypothesis on Whether the Message is Understandable in Missouri.
- Figure C-13. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on whether Safety-Related DMS Cause Drivers to Slow Down in Nevada.
- Figure C-14. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on whether Safety-Related DMS Cause Drivers to Slow Down in Minnesota/Wisconsin.
- Figure C-15. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on whether Safety-Related DMS Cause Drivers to Slow Down in Kansas.
- Figure C-16. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on whether Safety-Related DMS Cause Drivers to Slow Down in Missouri.
- Figure C-17. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on Doing Anything Differently after Seeing the Message in Nevada.
- Figure C-18. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on Doing Anything Differently after Seeing the Message in Minnesota/Wisconsin.
- Figure C-19. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on Doing Anything Differently after Seeing the Message in Kansas.
- Figure C-20. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on Doing Anything Differently after Seeing the Message in Missouri.
- Figure C-21. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on Whether DMS Messages Cause Changes in Driving Behavior in Nevada.
- Figure C-22. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on Whether DMS Messages Cause Changes in Driving Behavior in Minnesota/Wisconsin.
- Figure C-23. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on Whether DMS Messages Cause Changes in Driving Behavior in Kansas.
- Figure C-24. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on Whether DMS Messages Cause Changes in Driving Behavior in Missouri.
- Figure C-25. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on Agreement that the Identified Message is Appropriate in Nevada.
- Figure C-26. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on Agreement that the Identified Message is Appropriate in Minnesota/Wisconsin.
- Figure C-27. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on Agreement that the Identified Message is Appropriate in Kansas.
- Figure C-28. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on Agreement that the Identified Message is Appropriate in Missouri.
- Figure C-29. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis that the Identified Message Raised their Awareness of the Issue in Nevada.
- Figure C-30. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis that the Identified Message Raised their Awareness of the Issue in Minnesota/Wisconsin.
- Figure C-31. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis that the Identified Message Raised their Awareness of the Issue in Kansas.
- Figure C-32. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis that the Identified Message Raised their Awareness of the Issue in Missouri.
- Figure C-33. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on the Best Way to Communicate Safety-related Information in Nevada.
- Figure C-34. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on the Best Way to Communicate Safety-related Information in Minnesota/Wisconsin.
- Figure C-35. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on the Best Way to Communicate Safety-related Information in Kansas.
- Figure C-36. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on the Best Way to Communicate Safety-related Information in Missouri.
- Figure C-37. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on Message Types that should be Displayed on DMS in Nevada.
- Figure C-38. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on Message Types that should be Displayed on DMS in Minnesota/Wisconsin.
- Figure C-39. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on Message Types that should be Displayed on DMS in Kansas.
- Figure C-40. Graph. Odds Ratios with 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on Message Types that should be Displayed on DMS in Missouri.
List of Tables
- Table 1. Table 1. Preliminary Sample Size Requirements for Comparing Differences in Traveler Opinions Between Two Corridors.
- Table 2. Initial Hypotheses and Survey Measures.
- Table 3. Safety Campaign Messages Posted During this Study.
- Table 4. Number of Travelers Encountered.
- Table 5. Number of Survey Participants per Corridor, and Percentage by Traveler Type.
- Table 6. Number of Survey Participants per Corridor, and Percentage by Gender.
- Table 7. Number of Survey Participants per Corridor, and Percentage by Frequency of Seeing Safety Campaign Messages on DMS.
- Table 8. Hypothesis Areas and Survey Questions
- Table 9. Number of Survey Participants per Corridor, and Percentage on Whether They See Identified Safety Campaign Messages on DMS.
- Table 10. Odds Ratios and 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Awareness Hypothesis of Observing an Actual Safety Message and/or PSA on a DMS by Site.
- Table 11. Number of Survey Participants per Corridor, and Percentage on the Understanding of the Listed Message.
- Table 12. Odds Ratios and 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Understanding Hypothesis on Understanding of the Listed Message by Site.
- Table 13. Number of Survey Participants per Corridor, and Percentage on Their Agreement on Whether the Message is Understandable.
- Table 14. Odds Ratios and 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Understanding Hypothesis on Whether the Message is Understandable by Site.
- Table 15. Have these DMS ever Caused You to Slow Down?
- Table 16. Odds Ratios and 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on whether Safety-Related DMS Cause Drivers to Slow Down by Site.
- Table 17. Responses to "Did You Do Anything Differently?" by Site.
- Table 18. Odds Ratios and 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on Drivers Doing Anything Differently After Seeing the Message by Site.
- Table 19. Responses to "Have these DMS messages ever caused changes in your driving behavior?" by Site.
- Table 20. Odds Ratios and 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Behavior Hypothesis on Whether DMS Messages Cause Changes in Driving Behavior by Site.
- Table 21. Number of Survey Participants per Corridor, and Percentage on Their Agreement on Whether the Identified Message is Appropriate.
- Table 22. Odds Ratios and 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on Agreement that the Identified Message is Appropriate by Site.
- Table 23. Number of Survey Participants per Corridor, and Percentage on Their Agreement on Whether the Identified Message Raised their Awareness of the Issue.
- Table 24. Odds Ratios and 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis that the Identified Message Raised their Awareness of the Issue by Site.
- Table 25. Number of Survey Participants per Corridor, and Percentage on the Best Way to Communicate Safety-related Information.
- Table 26. Odds Ratios and 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on the Best Way to Communicate Safety-related Information by Site.
- Table 27. Percentage of Survey Participants on Message Types that should be Displayed on DMS.
- Table 28. Odds Ratios and 95 Percent Confidence Limits – Opinions Hypothesis on Message Types that should be Displayed on DMS by Site.
- Table 29. Hypotheses and Evaluation Results.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
ANOVA | Analysis of Variance |
DMS | Dynamic Message Sign |
DOT | Department of Transportation |
FHWA | Federal Highway Administration |
KS | Kansas |
MN | Minnesota |
MO | Missouri |
NV | Nevada |
PCMS | Portable Changeable Message Sign |
PSA | Public Service Announcement |
TMC PFS | Transportation Management Center Pooled Fund Study |
WI | Wisconsin |