Office of Operations
21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

Volume 1 - Technical Application: Transcending Boundaries with Surveillance, Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure via Integrated Network-Wide Management

2. Supporting Documentation


2.1 References for 1.0 Project Narrative

  1. American Society of Civil Engineers. ASCE's 2017 Infrastructure Report Card. 2017 Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/making-the-grade/report-card-history/.
  2. U.S. Department of Transportation, Beyond Traffic 2045. 2017.
  3. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) March Meeting Showcases Advanced Technologies to Help Manage the Nation's Infrastructure. January 2014. Date accessed 6/7/17. Available from: https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2014/01/nist-march-meeting-showcases-advanced-technologies-help-manage-nations.
  4. Techbrief: Pavement Structural Evaluation at the Network Level. Federal Highway Administration Research and Technology. Date accessed: 6/7/17. Available from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/infrastructure/pavements/15075/index.cfm.
  5. U.S. Department of Transportation. Beyond Traffic: DOT's 30 Year Framework. 2017 Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://www.transportation.gov/BeyondTraffic.
  6. ITS, ITS 2015-2019 Strategic Plan. Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office. p. 26.
  7. Bureau of Economic Activity. Gross domestic product (GDP) by state (millions of current dollars). Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: http://www.bea.gov/iTable/drilldown.cfm?reqid=70&stepnum=11&AreaTypeKeyGdp=5&GeoFipsGdp=XX&ClassKeyGdp=NAICS&ComponentKey=200&IndustryKey=1&YearGdp=2015Q2&YearGdpBegin=-1&YearGdpEnd=-1&UnitOfMeasureKeyGdp=Levels&RankKeyGdp=1&Drill=1&nRange=5.
  8. United States Census Bureau. Population by state. Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://census.gov/topics/population.html and United States Census Bureau. State Area Measurements. Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://www.census.gov/geo/reference/state-area.html.
  9. Federal Highway Administration. Highway Statistics 2012. Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2012/.
  10. America 2050. Northeast. Date accessed; Available from: http://www.america2050.org/northeast.html.
  11. Federal Highway Administration. National Bridge Inventory (NBI). Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/nbi.cfm.
  12. New England Transportation Consortium June 7, 2016 meeting, Burlington, VT.
  13. LLC, Spy Pond Partners and Inc. Applied Pavement Technology, Measuring Performance Among State DOTs: Sharing Good Practices - Pavement Structural Health. 2013, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO).
  14. American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Practice for Computing International Roughness Index of Roads from Longitudinal Profile Measurements. 2014.
  15. American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Practice for Roads and Parking Lots Pavement Condition Index Surveys 2009.
  16. Vines-Cavanaugh, David, Dan Busuioc, Ralf Birken, and Ming Wang. Millimeter-wave non-destructive evaluation of pavement conditions. in Proceedings of SPIE Symposium on Smart Structures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring. 2012. San Diego, CA.
  17. Federal Highway Administration. Rolling Wheel Deflectometer: Network-level Pavement Structural Evaluation, Measuring Deflection at Highway Speeds. 2015 Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/management/rwd/index.cfm.
  18. Sivaneswaran, Nadarajah. Network Level Pavement Structural Evaluations – A Way Forward. 2014 Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: http://www.apps.vtti.vt.edu/PDFs/PE-2014/Sivaneswaran.pdf.
  19. Infrasense. iPLAN Maps: District 6 Subsurface Evaluation. 2017 Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: http://iplan.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=36433c5e330e48378bca126af4920549.
  20. Graybeal, B., B. Phares, D. Rolander, M. Moore, and G. Washer, Visual Inspection of Highway Bridges. Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, 2002. 21(3): p. 67-83.
  21. AASHTOWare. A Software Suite for Designing and Managing Infrastructure Projects. Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: www.aashtoware.org.
  22. Gucunski, N., A. Imani, F. Romero, S. Nazarian, D. Yuan, H. Wiggenhauser, P. Shokouhi, A. Taffe, and D. Kutrubes, Nondestructive Testing to Identify Concrete Bridge Deck Deterioration. 2013, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies.
  23. Martino, N., R. Birken, K. Maser, and M. Wang, Developing a Deterioration Threshold Model for the Assessment of Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar. 2014, Transportation Research Board.
  24. Maser, K., N. Martino, J. Doughty, and R. Birken, Understanding and Detecting Bridge Deck Deterioration Using Ground Penetrating Radar. 2012, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies p. 116-123.
  25. Birken, R., G. Schirner, S. Ghata, Liu H., H. Qiu, S. Shahini Shamsabadi, D. Vines-Cavanaugh, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Zhang, S. Wadia-Fascetti, and M. Wang. Implementation of a multi-modal mobile sensor system for surface and subsurface assessment of roadways. in Proceedings of the National Pavement Evaluation Conference. 2014.
  26. Birken, R., M. Wang, and S. Wadia-Fascetti. Framework for continuous network-wide health monitoring of roadways and bridge decks. in Asian-Pacific Network of Centers for Research in Smart Structure Technology (ANCRiSST) 7th Annual Workshop Proceedings IISc. 2012. Bangalore, India: Invited Presentation.
  27. Vines-Cavanaugh, David, Shamsabadi Salar Shahini, Zhao Yubo, Huang Guoqiang, Wadia-Fascetti Sara, Schirner Gunar, Birken Ralf, and Wang Ming, City-Wide Application of the Affordable and Rapid StreetScan Pavement-Management System. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 2017. 23(2).
  28. Vines-Cavanaugh, D., S. Shahini Shamsabadi, Y. Zhao, G. Huang, S. Wadia-Fascetti, G. Schirner, R. Birken, and M. Wang. City-wide application of a vehicle-mounted multi-sensor pavement monitoring system. in Proceedings of the International Symposium for NonDestructive Testing in Civil Engineering (NDT-CE). 2015. Berlin, Germany.
  29. Hicks, R. Gary and Jonathan L. Groeger, Pavement Management Practices in State Highway Agencies: Newington, Connecticut Peer Exchange Results. 2011, Federal Highway Administration.
  30. Lee, H. , T. Yuan, H.C. Jung, and R.E. Beighley, Mapping Wetland Water Depths Over the Central Congo Basin Using PALSAR SCANSAR Scansar, ENVISAT Altimetry, and MODIS VCF Data. Remote Sensing of the Environment, 2015. 159: p. 70-79.
  31. Seyyedi, Hojjat, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Edward Beighley, and Jeffrey McCollum, Hydrologic evaluation of satellite and reanalysis precipitation datasets over a mid-latitude basin. Atmospheric Research. 164–165: p. 37-48.
  32. Barmpounakis, Emmanouil N., Eleni I. Vlahogianni, and John C. Golias, Unmanned Aerial Aircraft Systems for transportation engineering: Current practice and future challenges. International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, 2016. 5(3): p. 111-122.
  33. Hart, W. Scott and Nasir G. Gharaibeh, Use of Micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Roadside Condition Surveys. 2011, T&DI Congress 2011 : Integrated Transportation and Development for a Better Tomorrow.
  34. USDoT, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications for Highway Transportation. 2013, Initial Stage Reference Research.
  35. Li, M., Faghri, A., Ozden, A., & Yue, Y. (2017). Economic Feasibility Study for Pavement Monitoring Using Synthetic Aperture Radar-Based Satellite Remote Sensing. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2645, 1-11.
  36. Ebert, A., Kerle, N., & Stein, A. (2009). Urban social vulnerability assessment with physical proxies and spatial metrics derived from air- and space-borne imagery and GIS data. Natural Hazards, 48, 275-294
  37. Federal Highway Administration. Highway Statistics Series: Highway Statistics 2012. 2014 Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/policyinformation/statistics/2012/hm10.cfm.
  38. Federal Highway Administration. Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act). 2017 Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/fastact/
  39. Stephens, JC, EJ Wilson, and TR Peterson, Socio-Political Evaluation of Energy Deployment (SPEED): An Integrated Research Framework for Analysis of Energy Technology Deployment. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 2008. 75: p. 1224–1246.
  40. Stephens, JC, EJ Wilson, and TR Peterson, Socio-political Evaluation of Energy Deployment (SPEED): A Framework Applied to Smart Grid. UCLA Law Review, 2014. 61(6): p. 1930-1961.
  41. Stephens, JC, E Wilson, and TR Peterson, Smart Grid (R)Evolution: Electric Power Struggles. Cambridge University Press, 2015.
  42. Federal Highway Administration, Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21). 2012, U.S. Department of Transportation. p. 182.
  43. Federal Highway Administration. Traffic Congestion and Reliability Trends and Advanced Strategies for Congestion Mitigation. 2005 Date accessed; Available from: https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/congestion_report/index.htm.
  44. Federal Highway Administration. FHWA Work Zone Facts and Statistics. 2017 Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/resources/facts_stats.htm.
  45. American Society of Civil Engineers, Failure to Act—Closing the Infrastructure Investment Gap for America's Economic Future. 2016, ASCE's 2017 Infrastructure Report Card.
  46. National Technical Information Service. National Motor Vehicle Crash Causation Survey--Report to Congress. 2008 Date accessed 6/7/17.
  47. American Society of Civil Engineers. Conditions & Capacity. 2017 Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/roads/conditions-capacity/.
  48. Federal Highway Administration. Roadway Safety Data Program. Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/rsdp/hsm.aspx.
  49. Federal Highway Administration. Work Zone and Traffic Analysis Tools. 2017 Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/traffic_analysis/tools.htm.
  50. Federal Highway Administration. QuickZone. 2017 Date accessed 6/7/17; Available from: https://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/traffic_analysis/quickzone/index.htm.
  51. Wang, Ting, John Harvey, and Alissa Kendall, Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through strategic management of highway pavement roughness. Environmental Research Letters, 2014. 9(3): p. 034007.
  52. Bullard, Robert D. Addressing Urban Transportation Equity in the United States, in Thirteenth Annual Symposium on Contemporary Urban Challenges: Urban Equity: Consideration of Race and the Road towards Equitable Allocation of Municipal Services 2004. p. 1183 - 1210.
  53. Khurshid, Muhammad Bilal, M. Irfan, A. Ahmed, and S. Labi, A Framework for Assessing the Consequences of Deferred or Hastened Highway Asset Interventions. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 2015. 11(3): p. 282.
  54. American Society of Civil Engineers, Failure to Act – The economic impact of current investment trends in surface transportation infrastructure. 2011, Economic Development Research Group, Inc.
  55. Hashemi Tari, Yasamin, Salar Shahini Shamsabadi, Ralf Birken, and Ming Wang. Deterioration modeling for condition assessment of flexible pavements considering extreme weather events. 2015.
  56. Kim, J., Y. Ahn, and H. Yeo, A comparative study of time-based maintenance and condition-based maintenance for optimal choice of maintenance policy. Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, 2016. 12(12): p. 1525-1536.
  57. Smith, Kelly, Leslie Titus-Glover, Michael Darter, Harold Von Quintus, Richard Stubstad, and Larry Scofield, Cost-Benefit Analysis of Continuous Pavement Preservation Design Strategies Versus Reconstruction. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2005. 1933: p. 83-93.
  58. Wang, Ting, In-Sung Lee, Alissa Kendall, John Harvey, Eul-Bum Lee, and Changmo Kim, Life cycle energy consumption and GHG emission from pavement rehabilitation with different rolling resistance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2012. 33: p. 86-96.
  59. Xu, Y. and Y-C. Tsai, Financial Consequences of Delaying Pavement Rehabilitation: Case Study Using LTPP Data. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 2012. 138(8).
  60. Kuennen, T, Making High-Volume Roads Last Longer. The National Academy of Sciences Engineering, 2005. 75(4): p. 12.
  61. Hashemi Tari, Yasamin Sadat, Performance-Based Management and Condition Prediction of Civil Infrastructures. Master of Science Thesis, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, January 2015.

2.2 Support Letters

WASHINGTON 1414 Longworth Building Washington, DC 20515-2107 (202) 225-5111 Fax: (202) 225-9322; Committee on Financial Services - Ranking Democratic Member - Subcommittee on Housing & Insurance - Committee on Transportation & Infrastructure - Committee on Ethics
There is a logo of a eagle with spread wings and a branch in one claw and arrows in the other.  The text reads 'Congress of the United States House of Representatives Michael E. Capuano 7th District, Massachusetts'.
MASSACHUSETTS 110 First Street Cambridge, MA 02141-2109 (617) 621-6208 Fax (617) 621-8628; Roxbury Community College Campus Library Room 211 - Stetson Hall Room 124 Randolph

June 6, 2017

The Honorable Elaine L. Chao
United States Department of Transportation
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590

Dear Secretary Chao,

Northeastern University, in collaboration with New England municipalities, states, cities, and service providers, has submitted a proposal for the funding under the Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment (A TCMTD) initiative included in Section 6004 of the FAST Act (P.L. 114-94). This proposal, titled "Transcending Boundaries with Surveillance Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure via Integrated Network-Wide Management" will convene the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium as a demonstration site for the Northeast Megaregion. Their proposal is well aligned with the program's mission to help state transportation agencies improve infrastructure monitoring and maintenance, manage federal highway and bridge assets, and optimize the allocation of limited resources within an integrated multi-modal transportation network system.

As you know, the initiative recognizes the need to enhance the inspection technologies for our state and federal highway system with practical technologies that enable states to process large amounts of real-time data that are already being provided to transportation professionals. These inspection technologies are critical for ensuring spending of limited funds for renewal of our infrastructure, as well as to enhance safety of our system. The latest Report Card from the American Society of Civil Engineers clearly highlights the system needs in the nation's highway system with millions of miles of roads in poor or mediocre condition, and significant investments needed to address ailing bridges and bridge decks.

As the author of the provision to ensure that the A TCMTD program includes collaboration with academia and industry through public-private partnerships, I am pleased to see that this proposal addresses these critical concerns with the formation of a regional multi-jurisdictional partnership. The consortium is formed in conjunction with the other state DOTs, private sector partners, and several academic institutions to research and deploy an advanced mobile data collection sensor system. Their proposal was developed according to MAP-21 standards and is geared for monitoring, assessing, and assisting with decision support for transportation planning. This state-of-the-art system, which I have had the opportunity to evaluate firsthand, will be a vital tool as transportation agencies prioritize public investments and harness the large amounts of data becoming available for these critical activities.

As someone who shares our commitment to transportation innovation and management efficiency, I hope you will ensure this worthy proposal receives strong consideration.

Sincerely,

/S/

Michael E. Capuano
Member of Congress


Image is of the log of Northeastern University.  It is in gold trim.

James C. Bean
Provost and
Senior Vice President

Office of the Provost
110 Churchill Hall
Northeastern University
360 Huntington Avenue
Boston, Massachusetts 02115

617·373·4517
617·373·8589 Fax
JBEAN@NORTHEASTERN.EDU

June 7, 2017

The Honorable Elaine Chao
United States Department of Transportation
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590

Dear Secretary Chao

On behalf of Northeastern University, I write to express my full support for the proposal entitled "Transcending Boundaries with Surveillance, Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure via Integrated Network-Wide Management" submitted to the Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment (ATCMTD) initiative of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Northeastern is the lead for this project and will convene the SMART Infrastructure Consortium to deploy and demonstrate the potential of advanced technology across the Northeast Megaregion with an initial focus in New England to demonstrate the effectiveness of continuous and reliable infrastructure inspection and assessment with respect to cost, safety, and regional economic growth.

Northeastern University brings to this project a historic and proven track record of creating not only technology, but also the bedrock for its successful implementation through our use-inspired research. Our Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy and the Boston Area Research Initiative (BARI) brings expertise in public policy and governance critical to inform the organizational changes required to fully adopt the new advanced technologies. Specifically, the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium engages key leaders to bridge the technical expertise and governance structure required to deploy advanced technologies with a strategy that is positioned to engage municipalities and asset owners to transform how infrastructure is inspected and maintained.

Northeastern Professors Wadia-Fascetti and Wang, who will lead the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium and its deployment efforts, both bring significant experience in developing innovative technological solutions and demonstrated experience with establishing partnerships that result in lasting change to transportation practice. The lasting change that The Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium enables is the provision of continuous data about the state of our infrastructure that will benefit the future of the nation's highway and bridge systems. Ultimately, we may find that crowd-sourcing is a significant contribution to how we collect inspection data.

Transforming society through purposeful and use-inspired research is at the core of Northeastern's values. With over 100 years of working with industry through our cooperative education model, working to solve real world grand challenges is in our DNA. We seek to understand the goals and needs of stakeholders, conduct research to develop solutions, and actively and strategically link the talent and resources of private, public, university and government entities. This approach pervades the teaching and mentoring of our students as well, by encouraging them to think about addressing social problems with business-driven solutions. For these reasons, Northeastern was named a "Changemaker Campus" by Ashoka, an international association of social entrepreneurs - a designation for universities whose interdisciplinary and entrepreneurial achievements have benefited society. I strongly anticipate that the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium will become another highly visible example of our ability to transform and effect change for the benefit of society.

Northeastern University will also be able to leverage the resources available at the recently launched Global Resilience Institute in April 2017, which will inform and advance societal resilience around the world. This interdisciplinary, university-wide Institute is partnering with other leading academic research institutions, nonprofits and public and private sectors to devise and apply practical, interdisciplinary innovations and solutions to resilience challenges. The Global Resilience Institute will work closely with the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium to facilitate social and technical changes that strengthen the capacity of individuals, communities, systems and networks to adapt to an increasingly turbulent world.

The highway and bridge infrastructure dilemmas facing the U.S., as delineated in assessments such as MAP-21 and Beyond Traffic 2045, underscore that creative problem-solving is crucial. The Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium will provide not only real-time data but the underlying decision-making model that will help states in our region to accomplish the goals of maintenance, repair, and expansion where needed. By engaging Northeastern, the U.S. and State DOT's can be assured of many qualities: a sensitivity to the political context, a willingness to apply smart technology to produce solutions, the knowledge and commitment to implementation, and the supporting leadership who can overcome difficulties and challenges of change. This project will engender public support and build constituencies who will laud such innovations that will serve as a means of strengthening the ability of elected officials to develop and pass future legislation to support critical development.

To support this project, I have asked our Office of Government Relations to work with the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium leaders to actively coordinate across the New England states and local governments to ensure that the work of the Consortium is integrated into each state's effort to maintain the highest quality highway system possible.

In summary, Northeastern is fully committed to the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium vision and will provide the resources necessary to ensure its success. We look forward to working with our consortium partners and the U.S. and State DOT's to implement this effort. Northeastern University is excited to lead this regional deployment initiative as a center, which will serve as a test bed for the rest of the nation to address some of the most challenging issues facing our transportation systems.

Regards,

/S/

James C. Bean
Provost and Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs

cc:

Mr. Walter "Butch" Waidelich, Jr., Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Highway Administration
Mr. Martin Knopp, Associate Administrator, Office of Operations, Federal Highway Administration
Mr. David Harris, Program Manager, Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management
   Technologies Deployment
Mr. Robert Rupert, Team Leader, Connected/ Automated Vehicles and Emerging Technologies


Northeastern University Letterhead









Office of the Dean




Snell Engineering Center

360 Huntington Avenue

Boston, MA 02115

northeastern.edu/coe

617.373.2153

June 7, 2017

The Honorable Elaine Chao
United States Department of Transportation
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590

Dear Secretary Chao

It is my great pleasure to convey my full support for the proposal entitled "Transcending Boundaries with Surveillance, Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure via Integrated Network-Wide Management" submitted to the Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment (ATCMTD) initiative of the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). The lead organization for this project is the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium created by Northeastern University. What is particularly unique is that new technologies will be deployed throughout New England and across the Northeast Megaregion to serve as a deployment pilot demonstrating the merits of continuous and ubiquitous infrastructure evaluation.

As we anticipate future priorities around a safe, sustainable infrastructure for our bridges and highways, Northeastern has already taken a major role in initiating improvements to the system. Essential requirements of this project—interdisciplinary collaboration and cooperative engagement in the world—are our guiding principles. Our technology development and commitment to use-inspired research well qualifies this team, led by Northeastern engineering faculty members Drs. Ming Wang and Sara Wadia-Fascetti, to help the US-DOT take critical next steps and demonstrate the use of advanced technology in developing systems that continuously inspect our nation's infrastructure. Through this collaboration, mutual learning, and the production of reliable data, the SMART Infrastructure Consortium will transform how the nation inspects and maintains civil infrastructure within a resource-constrained environment, while ensuring safety and a standard of quality on our roads and bridge decks.

Northeastern University and its College of Engineering has a track record of advanced inspection technologies and constructive collaborations with industry, universities, nonprofit, and government partners. The college alone is lead or core partner to 12 federally-funded research centers. One of these, the VOTERS center, was a Northeastern-led consortium funded by NIST from 2009 to 2014 to create a simple, inexpensive way to detect surface and subsurface roadway defects, enabling continuous network-wide health monitoring of roadways without setting up hazardous and expensive work zones, and providing accurate up-to-date pavement condition information to decision-makers. As a result of the technology developed under VOTERS, a spin-off company, StreetScan, was formed in 2015, which has already analyzed the roadways of numerous jurisdictions across the country.

Northeastern University has seen significant advancements in the last year towards creating a truly interdisciplinary effort in developing sustainable and smart infrastructure. The recently launched Global Research Institute advances resilience-related initiatives that contribute to the security, sustainability, health and well-being of societies. Northeastern was recently designated a Beyond Traffic Innovation Center by the USDOT to take a leadership role to address our nation's transportation challenges and advance the Beyond Traffic 2045 Strategic Plan. Professors Wadia-Fascetti, Koutsopoulos, Ruth, and Wang who are all leaders in the Beyond Traffic Innovation Center and this proposed effort work closely with faculty in the Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy and the Boston Area Research Initiative (BARI) to bridge the gap between engineering decisions and the organizational policy required to realize successful implementation. Professor Ruth serves as the Director of the Dukakis Center and has a joint appointment in the Civil & Environmental Engineering Department. Working across academia as well as the public and private sectors, researchers at Northeastern will emphasize the role big data can play in addressing challenges and improving decision-making in infrastructure and transit planning. This continued work that brings together research, policy, and practice will translate to cutting-edge transportation research and innovations in policy and practice.

As indicated in the proposal, our team will once more form a regional, multi-jurisdictional partnership, the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium, which will be developed in conjunction with state DOTs, private sector partners, and several academic institutions to research and deploy an advanced mobile data collection sensor system in accordance with MAP- 21 standards and within the aspiration set forth in the USDOT Strategic Plan for 2045 – Beyond Traffic.

Increasing state-level transportation system accountability and the public's trust are components we do not take lightly. The guide for decision-making that we will provide is an essential attribute of this project. With such data, transportation leadership can prioritize public investments and the public can be assured of the rationale and the potential positive impact of transportation spending decisions.

To support this effort, the College of Engineering is committed to provide the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium with appropriate space to use as the headquarters for project staff, faculty, and students as well as holding regular project meetings. If there is any further information we can provide, please do not hesitate to contact me.

Sincerely,

/S/

Nadine Aubry
Dean of the College of Engineering

cc: Mr. Walter "Butch" Waidelich, Jr., Acting Deputy Administrator, Federal Highway Administration
Mr. Martin Knopp, Associate Administrator, Office of Operations, Federal Highway Administration
Mr. David Harris, Program Manager, Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment
Mr. Robert Rupert, Team Leader, Connected/Automated Vehicles and Emerging Technologies


The crest of Massachusetts is shown and the text reads: Charles D. Baker Governor; Karyn E Polito, Lieutenant Governor; Stephanie Pollack, MassDOT Secretary & CEO
Massachusetts Department of Transportation Logo

The Honorable Elaine Chao
United States Department of Transportation
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590

Dear Secretary Chao,

I am writing to express the Massachusetts Department of Transportation's (MassDOT) strong commitment to the proposal entitled "Transcending Boundaries with Surveillance Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure via Integrated Network-Wide Management" that will be submitted to the Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment (ATCMTD) initiative of the U.S. Department of Transportation. The proposal is led by Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts.

MassDOT has an on-going desire to enhance the inspection technologies for our state and federal highway system, with practical technologies that enable us to process large amounts of real-time data that are now being provided to transportation professionals. These inspection technologies are critical for ensuring the strategic spending of limited funds for renewal of our infrastructure, as well as to enhance safety of our system.

The 2013 Report Card from the American Society of Civil Engineers clearly highlights the system needs in the nation's highway system, with over 4 million miles of roads in poor or mediocre condition, and significant investments needed to address ailing bridges and bridge decks. This proposal addresses these critical concerns through the formation of a regional multi jurisdictional partnership - the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium. The consortium is formed in conjunction with other state DOTs, private sector partners, and several academic institutions to research and deploy an advanced mobile data collection sensor system that is developed according to MAP-21 standards and is geared for monitoring, assessing, and assisting with decision support for transportation planning.

MassDOT is enthusiastic about this endeavor, and we are prepared to fully engage as a Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium founding member. We will provide engineers as liaison to the consortium, access to infrastructure for inspection, and data for comparison purposes.

Thank you for your consideration of this innovative research and deployment proposal.

Sincerely,

/S/

Stephanie Pollack
Secretary and CEO

Ten Park Plaza, Suite 4160, Boston, MA 02116
Tel: 857-368-4636, TTY: 857-368-0655
www.mass.gov/massdot


Rhode Island Department of Transportation Logo

Department of Transportation
Two Capitol Hill
Providence, RI 02903

Office 401-222-2450
Fax 401-222-3905

June 6, 2017

The Honorable Elaine Chao
United States Department of Transportation
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590

Dear Secretary Chao,

I am writing to express our strong commitment to the proposal entitled "Transcending Boundaries with Surveillance Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure via Integrated Network-Wide Management" that will submitted to the Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment (ATCMTD) initiative of the U.S. Department of Transportation. The proposal is led by Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts.

We have an urgent need to enhance the inspection technologies for our state and federal highway system, with practical technologies that enable us to process large amounts of real-time data that are now being provided to transportation professionals. These inspection technologies are critical for ensuring strategic spending of limited funds for renewal of our infrastructure, as well as to enhance safety of our system. The 2013 Report Card from the American Society of Civil Engineers clearly highlights the system needs in the nation's highway system, with over 4 million miles of roads in poor or mediocre condition, and significant investments needed to address ailing bridges and bridge decks.

This proposal addresses these critical concerns through the formation of a regional multi-jurisdictional partnership - the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium. The consortium is formed in conjunction with other state DOTs, municipalities, private sector partners, and several academic institutions to research and deploy an advanced mobile data collection sensor system that is developed according to MAP-21 standards and is geared for monitoring, assessing, and assisting with decision support for transportation planning. This state-of-the-art system will be important to us for prioritizing public investments and harnessing the large amounts of data becoming available for these critical activities.

RIDOT is enthusiastic about supporting this important endeavor. To that end, RIDOT is prepared to fully engage as a Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium founding member and we will provide engineers as liaison to the consortium as well as access to infrastructure for inspection and data for comparison purposes.

Thank you for your consideration of this innovative research and deployment proposal.

Sincerely,

/S/

Peter Alviti, Jr., P.E.
Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation


Rhode Island Department of Transportation Logo

Department of Transportation
Two Capitol Hill
Providence, RI 02903

Office 401-222-2450
Fax 401-222-3905

June 9, 2017

Sara Wadia-Fascetti
Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering
Associate Dean for Graduate Education
Northeastern University
Boston, MA 02115

Dear Professor Wadia-Fascetti:

I've been apprised of your discussions with my research engineer on the proposal entitled: "Transcending Boundaries with Surveillance Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure via Integrated Network-Wide Management" that will be submitted to the Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment (ATCMTD) initiative of the U. S. Department of Transportation. He considers that the product of the work will greatly benefit the State of Rhode Island and the other five New England states. The spirit of cooperation of the New England Transportation Consortium, created over 30 years ago to conduct research for needs common to the six states (including topics related to roads and bridges) will facilitate the effort to meet the project goals.

Improving the highway and bridge condition data collection methods and analysis will provide state DOT's with tools for better decision-making as we prioritize our infrastructure investments. I understand that this proposal addresses this area through the formation of a regional multi-jurisdictional partnership via the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium to research and deploy an advanced mobile data collection sensor system that is developed according to MAP-21 standards and is geared for monitoring, assessing, and assisting with decision support for transportation planning. This state-of-the-art system will be important to us for prioritizing public investments and harnessing the large amounts of data becoming available for these critical activities.

This is especially significant for Rhode Island, given our national standing in the condition of our infrastructure and our aggressive plan to correct the majority of those deficiencies over the next 10 years. Our research program works to closely track and address practical needs for our Department, so we support this proposal and are prepared to assist in providing access to infrastructure for inspection and data for comparison purposes. As part of the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium, I will recommend RIDOT representatives to serve in an advisory role for the consortium activities.

Sincerely,

/S/

José S. Lima
Acting Project Manager II
Materials Management

MDS/mds

cc: Mr. Bernardo, Mr. Fish, Mr. Sock, file


New Hampshire Department of Transportation Logo and words: Victoria F. Sheehan Commissioner
The State of New Hampshire Department of Transportation
New Hampshire Logo and words: William Cass, P.E. Assistant Commissioner

June 9, 2017

Sara Wadia-Fascetti
Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering
Associate Dean for Graduate Education
Northeastern University
Boston, MA 02115

Dear Professor Wadia-Fascetti:

Thank you for encouraging collaboration between the New England states and providing information on the proposal entitled: "Transcending Boundaries with Surveillance Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure via Integrated Network-Wide Management" that will be submitted to the Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment (ATCMTD) initiative of the U. S. Department of Transportation.

Having enhanced inspection technologies for our state and federal highway system will enable us to process large amounts of real-time data with tools for better decision-making as we prioritize our infrastructure investments. My understanding is this proposal addresses these crucial concerns through the formation of a regional multi-jurisdictional partnership via the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium to research and deploy an advanced mobile data collection sensor system that is developed according to MAP-21 standards and is geared for monitoring, assessing, and assisting with decision support for transportation planning.

NHDOT is pleased to support this proposal, work with our neighboring states, and provide access to infrastructure for inspection and data for comparison purposes. As part of the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium, NHDOT representatives will be available to serve in an advisory role for the consortium activities.

Sincerely,

/S/

Ann Scholz, P.E.
Research Engineer


The State of Maine Logo with the following words underneath the image: Paul R. Leage Governor
State of Main Department of Transportation 16 State House Station Augusta, Main 04333-0016
David Bernhardt Commissioner

June 5, 2017

Sara Wadia-Fascetti
Professor of Civil & Environmental Engineering
Associate Dean for Graduate Education
Northeastern University
Boston, MA 02115

Dear Professor Wadia-Fascetti:

Thank you for the interesting discussions and information on the proposal entitled: "Transcending Boundaries with Surveillance Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure via Integrated Network-Wide Management" that will be submitted to the Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment (ATCMTD) initiative of the U. S. Department of Transportation.

Improving the highway and bridge condition data collection methods and analysis will provide state DOT's with tools for better decision-making as we prioritize our infrastructure investments. I understand that this proposal addresses this area through the formation of a regional multi-jurisdictional partnership via the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium to research and deploy an advanced mobile data collection sensor system that is developed according to MAP-21 standards and is geared for monitoring, assessing, and assisting with decision support for transportation planning. This state-of-the-art system will be important to us for prioritizing public investments and harnessing the large amounts of data becoming available for these critical activities.

Maine DOT supports this proposal and is prepared to provide access to infrastructure for inspection and data for comparison purposes. As part of the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium, I will recommend MaineDOT representatives to serve in an advisory role for the consortium activities.

Sincerely,

/S/

Dale Peabody, P.E.
Director Transportation Research

Image of state of Maine with recycling logo in the middle.  The words underneath the image say printed on recycled paper. After the image is these words: The Main Department of Transportation is an Affirmative Action - Equal Opportunity Employer; Phone: (207)624-3000 TTY 888-516-9364 Fax: (207) 624-3001

City of Boston

The Honorable Elaine Chao
United States Department of Transportation
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590

June 9, 2017

Dear Secretary Chao,

I am writing with my strong support for the proposal entitled: "Transcending Boundaries with Surveillance Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure via Integrated Network-Wide Management" that will be submitted to the Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment initiative.

We invest over $100 million each year to rebuild our streets, bridges and sidewalks. Investing that funding at the right time in the right locations is critical to ensuring we are spending the public's money effectively and delivering the best public realm for our constituents.

That is the promise of this research.

If we can collect actionable data at regular intervals to improve our capital program, we can stretch our existing resources to deliver smoother, safer and more sustainable streets, bridges and sidewalks. This is an area of significant focus for us, and this project can complement and enhance our existing data collection & analysis efforts. We have had the pleasure of working with this team in the past on a related project. We know them to be talented and thoughtful engineers, who deliver products which have real public sector value. That is why we are pleased to be a Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium founding member. We look forward to continuing our collaboration with them, sharing our time, our data and our expertise to advance this project.

We sincerely hope you support this application for the benefit it will provide to residents both in Boston and across the nation. If I can answer any questions for your team, please let me know.

Sincerely,

/S/

Chris Osgood
Chief of Streets

A black letter B with a red line underneath it.

Date: June 1, 2017

To: Whom It May Concern

FROM:

Bojidar Yanev, Eng. SC. D., P.E.
Executive Director,
Bridge Inspection and Management, NYC DOT

Adjunct Professor,
Columbia University,
Brooklyn Polytechnic,
New York City

SUBJECT:

Proposal by Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium (SMART---IC) "Transcending Boundaries with Surveillance Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure via Integrated Network-Wide Management" that will be submitted to the Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment (ATCMTD) initiative of the U. S. Department of Transportation.

Disclaimer: This is a personal view and does not express the position of any agency or organization.

The project proposed by Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium (SMART---IC) with the above title is timely and has considerable merit. Its principal strength is in both implementing and integrating on the level of a vehicular transportation network the following diverse technologies and management systems:

  • - Pavement Inspection.(NW-PI) System with a Surface Radar Array at highway speeds;
  • - Pavement Structure Evaluation (NW-PSE) with Traffic-Speed Deflectometer (TSD) and Subsurface Radar (GPR) systems;
  • - In-Traffic Bridge Deck Inspection (NW-BDI) using a multi-sensor bridge deck inspection system in traffic;
  • - Management Systems (NW-MS) capable of crossing various boundaries and providing actionable information.

Recent nation-wide  evaluations of the  vehicular transportation infrastructure have revealed urgent and extensive needs requiring prioritization of constrained resources. The project proposes to develop tools of such prioritization. Integrating various capabilities in pursuing this objective is an inherently contradictory and consequently, elusive task. The three key players advancing infrastructure management can be grouped as follows:

  • - responsible owners, maximizing service, minimizing risk;
  • - technology suppliers, marketing their capabilities;
  • - academia, modeling social and natural phenomena.

As illustrated in Fig. 1 herein, these main interests belong in the same 3-dimensional space of our infrastructure, but run in three essentially "orthogonal" directions. Two of the three occasionally collaborate towards developing various aspects of bridge health monitoring with promising results. Integrating all three would advance the state of the art to a higher practically applicable level. This is what the Consortium proposes and is well qualified to accomplish. Consequently, both as manager of New York City bridges, and educator of current and future bridge engineers, I wish to see the proposed project develop and look forward to the benefits from its implementation.

Figure 1 the 3-D Supply/demand space of bridge management technologies.  (Bridge Management by B. Yanev, J. Wiley, 2007)

Figure 1. The 3-D supply / demand space of bridge management technologies.
(Bridge Management by B. Yanev, J. Wiley, 2007)


Letterhead for City of Berkley with logo image in top left corner and words that read: City of Berkley Department of Public Services and Engineering 148 Park Street Beverly, Massachusetts 01915 978-921-6053 978-921-8534 facsimile; James Turcotte Project Coordinator; Michael P. Collins, P.E. Commissioner of Public Services and Engineering; Greg St. Louis, P.E., City Engineer

November 9 , 2015

Ralf Birken
COO, CTO, Founder
StreetScan Inc.
151 S. Bedford Street
Burlington, MA 01803

Dear Ralf:

As we enter our second season with the StreetScan PaveMon pavement management utility, I continue to be impressed with the level of sophistication of the information provided through such an easy to use interface. The web-based platform is essential to making the data accessible in the field or in the office.

We have utilized various pavement management systems throughout the years but never have I experienced this much data being collected, analyzed and reported in such a short timeframe. Our old system would take the better part of a year to perform all of those tasks. With StreetScan we go from survey to live reports within weeks.

For me the most critical aspect of the system is that it does not rely on any one individual making a judgment regarding pavement condition. All of the data is captured by reliable sensors that not only record surface conditions but are able to assess the subsurface and pinpoint defects there as well. Seeing below the surface is just amazing to me. We are now able to determine pavement thickness and spot trouble areas before they become visible.

As you know we were able to leverage the quick turnaround of the system this past winter to survey the city just before the winter and just after. This gave us a once-in-a-lifetime chance to determine the effect of such a harsh winter. The results were amazing. It showed clearly that the pavement degradation assumed by most systems to occur in a year was exceeded here in just four months. It also showed us what types of roads are most vulnerable to deterioration and which hold up the best. This last point is where I think your system will have the most long-term benefit. I hope that by scanning the streets annually we can determine which construction techniques are most suitable to our region and will give us pavement systems that can last the longest. Conversely, I hope to learn which techniques we should consider abandoning. We do not have sufficient resources to maintain our road network and our only hope is to increase the service life of our roads through better means and methods for pavement preservation.

Rarely do I get to work with a company like StreetScan. Everyone involved was integral to the creation of the software and hardware so they have intimate knowledge of the systems inner workings. When I suggest a system enhancement it is, usually live on the system within a few weeks. The staff are an amazingly talented group. Their passion for their work is infectious and they make my life easier every time I meet with them. That is not praise given lightly to the consulting world today.

Due to the incredibly short turnaround time afforded by StreetScan we are able to have what feels like real time information about our road network. We no longer have to guess which streets need crack sealing or full depth reconstruction. Since the data is all collected by sensors we are not subject to variances in opinion like in other systems. This is as high tech as it gets yet the results are so simple to understand and utilize.

I look forward to many more surveys since the system is so rich in information and easy to use. I was a believer in StreetScan from the first time I saw the system displayed and now that I have become a client I can say that without a doubt it has exceeded my expectations. I am also convinced that future iterations will be even more robust.

Sincerely,

/S/

Michael P. Collins, P.E.,
Commissioner of Public Services


Letterhead for Central Transportation Planning Staff (CTPS).  With slogan: Staff to Boston Region metropolitan Planning Organization

June 8, 2017

Sara Wadia-Fascetti
Professor,
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Northeastern University

Dear Professor Wadia-Fascetti,

I am writing to express my strong support for the proposal entitled "Transcending Boundaries with Surveillance Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure via Integrated Network-Wide Management" that will be submitted to the Advanced Transportation and Congestion Management Technologies Deployment (ATCMTD) initiative of the U.S. Department of Transportation.

As the Executive Director of the Central Transportation Planning Staff (CTPS) for the Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO), the organization responsible for comprehensive, multimodal transportation planning and analysis in the Boston region, I recognize the importance of a systems view when making decisions to improve the performance of individual components. The proposal, through the formation of the Northeast SMART Infrastructure Consortium, a regional multi-jurisdictional partnership, aims at improving highway and bridge condition data collection methods and analysis. The proposal focuses on the deployment of an advanced mobile data collection sensor system for monitoring and assessing infrastructure condition. As such, the system will provide data important for determining priorities for public investments and informing our transportation planning process.

CTPS supports this proposal and will provide access to publicly available transportation planning data that may be needed for analysis and evaluation.

Regards,

/S/

Karl Quackenbush
Executive Director

State Transportation Building · Ten Park Plaza, Suite 2150 · Boston, MA 02116-3968 · (857) 702-3700 · Fax (617) 570-9192 · TTY (617) 570-9193 · ctps@ctps.org


Logo for Boston Area Research Initiative.  The image is of a red rope bridge.

June 11, 2017

Dear Dr. Wadia-Fascetti,

The Boston Area Research Initiative (BARI) is excited to be a partner in your project "Transcending Boundaries with Surveillance, Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure via Integrated Network-Wide Management," submitted for funding to the United States Dept. of Transportation. The project is closely aligned with BARI's mission as an interuniversity partnership that undertakes and supports urban research that advances both science and policy, with a focus on the opportunities created by modern digital data and technology.

BARI will be active in the proposed project in three main ways:

Coordinating conversations with relevant stakeholders: Central to BARI's activities is the effort to connect and convene researchers, policymakers, practitioners, and community members around topics of common interest. We have extensive experience designing and executing models of research-policy collaboration that engage university centers, faculty, and students; and in organizing workshops and events that can catalyze such projects. We have demonstrated the utility of this work through a number of ongoing research-policy partnerships of our own with local agencies and departments, including the Mayor's Office of New Urban Mechanics, Boston Public Schools, Boston's Department of Innovation and Technology, the Metropolitan Area Planning Council, and others. We will work closely with the project's leadership to reach out to the relevant stakeholders, to organize the necessary conversations, and explore the ways that the findings and technologies arising from the project can be best implemented to advance their goals as a public agency.

Leveraging existing data-based partnerships: BARI's research-policy partnerships often center on translating administrative records into forms that are useful to research, policy, and practice. Many also explore potential technological implementations that can improve public services. Of particular note, BARI has been working with the City of Boston's Department of Innovation and Technology, the Mayor's Office of New Urban Mechanics, and the Massachusetts Department of Innovation and Technology to explore the future of modern digital data and technology for the region, including the development of a framework for "smart communities." These partnerships can be useful to the project in two ways. The first is direct access to data sources that may complement those generated by the project's technology for the purposes of validation, evaluation, or eventual implementation. Second is the ability to bring Departments of innovation and Technology to the table to assist in conversations about the use of data and technology for the purposes of policy and practice.

Connecting with a national network on Smart Cities: BARI is the City of Boston's co-member in the MetroLab Network, a national consortium of city-university partnerships that was launched by the White House Office for Science & Technology Policy and Carnegie Mellon in September, 2015. This network of like-minded efforts will facilitate the transfer of advances in knowledge and technology to other urban areas.

Sincerely,

/S/

Dan O'Brien
Co-Director, Boston Area Research Initiative
Assistant Professor, Public Policy and Urban Affairs
Northeastern University

/S/

Robert Sampson
Co-Director, Boston Area Research Initiative
Henry Ford II Professor of the Social Sciences
Harvard University

/S/

Christopher Winship
Co-Director, Boston Area Research Initiative
Diker-Tishman Professor of Sociology
Harvard University


From: William Ahearn wahearn.acea@gmail.com
Subject: SMART-IC proposal
Date: June 12, 2017 at 10:23 AM
To: Sara Wadia-Fascetti swf@coe.neu.edu

I apologize for not getting back in touch sooner about renewing/supplementing an application to USDOT regarding data automation/analysis for planning decisions.

I am very supportive of your efforts to build a standards setting/technology emergence coaching organization - SMART-IC (Surveillance, Monitoring and Action for Resilient Transportation (SMART) Infrastructure Consortium) for transportation. More than ever it is a crucial function, as the public becomes aware of the power of technology in their private vehicles there will be an expectation that information is actively and properly applied. I have attached a for your consideration.

I would be delighted to offer professional support and municipal/state perspectives on the use of emergent technologies in transportation asset management and development. If anything, I am even more excited about transportation operations including environmental optimizations (snow removal, reduced water quality impacts) and effective mobility (incident recovery, asset condition, traffic flow and routing).

I hope that I might contribute to your efforts and impending success with the DOT grant process. I believe that your team has the ability to bring together the right parties in a open collaborative process to make direct application of information happen across a broad spectrum of interests.

I can be reached through wahearn.acea@gmail.com or by text or call at 802-522-9360. Thank you for your efforts and interest in pursuing this work - it has great promise. Bill A

Note: William Ahearn brings nearly 4 decades of State Department of Transportation experience. Most recently, he served as the Research Managing Engineer for the Vermont Department of Transportation, VTrans. Now retired, his knowledge and expertise is an asset to the Northeast SMART-IC.

2.3 Sensor Proof of Concept

2.3.1 Sample Surface Radar Data

Consortium member StreetScan has developed this multi-channel road surface profiling system (Figure 3a) utilizing 24GHz FMCW (Frequency Modulated Constant Wave) Radar technology. The system will provide constant inspection of roadway conditions at traffic speed, across the width of the vehicle, capable of measuring IRI, rutting, faulting, cracking, potholes, and other pavement distresses as proposed by MAP-21 on "Assessing Pavement and Bridge Condition for the National Highway Performance Program". Profiles examples and derived parameters are showing in Figures (a) to (d).

Figure a: 24GHz FMCW vertical road profile as compared to a laser's profile. The image is of a graph with the laser in blue and radar in red.  The x-axis is by distance (M).  The y-axis is by elevation (mm). The paths are near identical with a correlation of .99.  The mean absolute error is 2.0 mm.

Figure a: 24GHz FMCW vertical road profile as compared to a laser's profile.

On the right is a chart with an x-axis of Distance (m) and a y-axis of Elevation (mm).  There are five graphs labeled Rad1 -5. with blue waves that vary up and down.  On the right is an image of the underside of a car on the road hitting a pothole.  The pothole is labeled.

Figure b: Road profile to determine potholes and their sizes, resolution between channels will be improved using 20 channels system (Figure 3c).

The image is divided.  On the left is a chart by elevation and distance.  Ther are two red columns where the graph dips down that indicate rutting.  On the right is an image of the underside of a car on a rutting road.  The ruts are labeled.

Figure c: Profiles to determine the rutting depth, resolution between channels will be improved using 20 channels system (presented in 1.1.5.1).

At the top is a chart by Reflectivity and Distance for 5 Rads.  Below are three images with the words: Example images for detections show above.  The three images are 1) M = Manhole - a car running over a manhole, 2) UC = Utility Cover - a car driving over a utility cover is seen, 3) RR = Railroad - A car driving over railroad tracks.

Figure d: Reflectivity to distinguish various materials

2.3.2 Pavement Strength and Remaining Life Evaluation Using TSD and GPR

The deflection bowl produced by the TSD provides the basis for evaluating the strength of the subgrade and pavement layers, information that is key in determining the pavement structural capacity and predicting its remaining life. The sensors furthest from the load provide a basis for determining the subgrade, or resilient modulus (Mr). The subgrade modulus is a measure of the strength of the pavement subgrade. Areas with unusually low subgrade modulus could possibly be weak due to inadequate drainage, frost heaves, washouts, or other causes. Knowledge of the areas of weak subgrade is critical for DOT's management practice, since it indicates that treatment may require more substantial rehabilitation than a typical asphalt overlay.

The effective pavement modulus is calculated using the resilient modulus, the remaining deflection values, and the layer thickness data provided by GPR. The effective modulus is then used to calculate the effective structural number (SNeff) which characterizes the strength of the pavement layers above the subgrade. The combination of Mr, SNeff, and the layer thickness values serve as the basis for calculating pavement remaining life. This calculation is done using the AASHTO 1993 design equation, which, although somewhat simplified, is an extremely practical remaining life methodology when dealing with the available volume of TSD and GPR data. Remaining life analysis is based on the number of equivalent single axle loads (ESALS). This information, together with truck traffic projections, is used to convert ESALS into remaining life in years.

The SNeff, Mr, and layer thickness data is also used to design the required overlay thickness for a fixed remaining life. The structural number required to handle the future traffic is calculated, and the difference between the existing and required structural number yields the required overlay thickness.

The availability of this pavement structure data at a high degree of resolution on the network level is valuable for segmenting the pavement by structure, and for project level evaluation. By dividing the pavement into homogenous segments according to structure and remaining life, the DOT can allocate resources more effectively and where they are most needed and lead to reduced life cycle costs. The data is also valuable at the project level. Once a pavement segment has been selected for rehabilitation design, a considerable amount of design data is already available. The localized detail, such as specific weak areas, can be addressed with specific treatments without affecting the overall project rehab design. This is important to reduce overall cost by avoiding needless overdesign.

The subgrade resilient modulus (MR) values for both the TSD calculated are determined by following the method provided in the AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures, 1993. The MR values were calculated using equation 1. This equation was carried out on the same six values for R where the surface pavement deflections were calculated for the TSD (0.0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.5 meters), (0, 7.9, 11.8, 23.6, 35.4, and 59.1 inches). The MR values were also calculated for seven different values of R where the surface pavement deflections were measured by the FWD (0, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 60 inches). The minimum MR value was chosen for each TSD station.

(eq. B.1)

M to subscript R which is to the subscript iota  = (91.3 * (a to the power of 2) * (1 - mu to the power of2)) / D to the subscript of iota * R to the subscript of iota

MR,i = Subgrade resilient modulus Ri distance from centerline of load-tire (psi)
Di = Pavement surface deflection at Ri distance from centerline of tire-load (inches)
Ri = Distance from centerline of load-tire (inch)
a = Load plate radius (assumed 150 mm for TSD)
µ = Poisson's ratio for asphalt layer (assumed 0.5)

The effective pavement modulus is the combined modulus of all the layers in the pavement structure that are above the subgrade. This includes all asphalt, and base layers that are present within the pavement structure. However, before Ep can be calculated, the pavement surface deflections must be adjusted for temperature. The D0 deflections were adjusted using Figures 5.6 and 5.7 of the AASHTO Design of Pavement Structures, 1993. These tables give a temperature adjustment factor (TAF) that is multiplied with the D0 deflections. The TAF takes into account the asphalt concrete mix temperature, and will vary based on the thickness of the asphalt concrete layer.

The calculation of Ep is carried out on the pavement surface deflections after applying the temperature correction adjustments. The Ep values are calculated using equation 2. This equation does not allow for the direct calculation of Ep. Instead, Ep has to be solved for iteratively.

2.3.3 In-Traffic Multi-Sensor Bridge Deck Inspection System Description

The ISA consortium will direct deployment of an in-traffic network-wide multi-sensor bridge deck inspection (NW-BDI) system with a GPR array at the core (Figure a), complemented with several other sensor systems (Figure b): 1) infrared thermography (IR), 2) surface radar (1.1.5.1), 3) 360-degree camera, 4) bridge deck facing video and 5) a positioning system. The GPS is used to locate the bridge that is being inspected in addition to displaying the precise location of data collected on the surface of the deck. They will be deployed jointly in tight time synchronization from a dedicated vehicle (Figure b).

An image of a small trailer with a DX1821 antenna from 3D-Radar mounted on it.

Figure a: DX1821 Antenna from 3D-Radar mounted on a small trailer, part of GeoScopeTM Mk IV GPR array system.

There are several images.  The first is a white truck.  There are then 8 smaller images of close-ups of those specific areas of the truck.  The first 6 show sensor systems.  the seventh image shows a thermal infrared camera and the eighth show as 360-degree camera.

Figure b: The mobile platform to be used for the bridge deck evaluations is StreetScan's pavement inspection van equipped with 6 sensor systems (1) (6). (7) A thermal infrared camera and (8) a 360-degree camera will be added to the van. The GPR array shown in Figure a will replace the four channel GPR system (6).

Example 2GHz GPR data were collected driving at a speed of a speed of 94kph on I-95 over Quinobequin Road in Newton, MA. Asphalt and concrete layers are seen clearly and the rebar layers are shown in Figure c. Concrete covers from top and bottom surface to rebar location can be determined.

An image of a B-scan GPR profile over the I-95 bridge is displayed in a graph by distance and traveling time.  A red line indicates the Asphalt.  A lower red line indicates the bottom of concrete.  Red dots indicate the first and second rebar layers.

Figure c. B-scan GPR profile over I-95 bridge – Ch1 (survey speed: ˜94 kph).

Infrared thermography utilizes an infrared camera (Figure b (7)) to collect surface temperatures of the bridge deck (Figure d bottom). In the case of a bare concrete deck, if an area is delaminated, it will heat up more quickly than the rest of the deck and appear as a "hot spot". Studies have used IR in conjunction with GPR since it detects rebar corrosion, which is the cause of delaminations within the deck's subsurface (Figure d top). In the case of an overlaid deck, IR can detect debonding between the overlay and the surface of the bridge deck (Maser 2009). This can also be correlated with GPR, by observing the signal reflection from the asphalt/concrete interface (Figure c).

The surface radar system described in section 1.1.5.1 will be used as a distress indicator of the deck's surface material whether it is concrete or asphalt Figure b (6)). The bridge deck facing video camera (Figure b (3)) will be used to visualize the bridge deck surface. The advantage that the video camera has over other methods is that it can detect distresses that are small in size, i.e.. cracks, spalling, etc. A computer software has been developed that can classify the distress (i.e., crack type) that can aid in the determining the cause for the damage (Ghanta et al., 2015). The 360-degree camera (Figure b (8)) will capture all other bridge elements that are above the bridge deck including rails, sidewalks, above deck structures, signs, etc. Both those visual data sets provide permanent records that can be compared with subsequent images to assess the deterioration over time.

Each dataset will be processed using separate sensor specific-software. A picking algorithm will be developed to automatically extract GPR data at the rebar level. Similarly, an algorithm will be developed to extract the surface temperatures from the infrared data. In order to visualize the variation in data and damaged locations, color contour plots will be automatically generated using each data set, and overlaid on a top- down view (bird's-eye view) of the deck, such as shown in Figure C4. These plots will be available for viewing and interaction via a web-based application. Some datasets, like the GPR data, will have a 3D viewing option so that a user can view data variation within different deck layers (i.e., surface layer, rebar layer, etc.). All collected and processed data are transferred to a cloud-based data center for post-processing fully compatible with our Management Systems (1.1.5.4).

The transfer of data will be in multiple forms. As discussed above, contour plots will be provided so that damaged locations can be pinpointed and spatially located on the actual bridge deck when it comes time for repair. An overall damage quantity will be provided as well. This will be a percentage (%) of the deck that is considered damaged via the nondestructive testing methods. This will enable the development of a repair schedule, prioritization of deck repair, and appropriate allocation of repair funds. Additionally, a bridge deck deterioration curve will be developed from the yearly data collection. This will help agencies to know when to take action in order to keep the deck in good condition and get the largest return on their investments.

There are two images.  The top image is of a bridge's GPR results.  There a several blue dots indicated less severe damage and a couple of purple dots indicated increased severity.  The image below is of a bridge deck with infrared results.  There are some red spotted sections indicating detamination detected.

Figure d: Bridge deck evaluation using GPR and infrared sensor (Courtesy of Infrasense)

References for this section:

Ghanta, S., Shahini Shamsabadi, S., Dy, J., Wang, M., and Birken, R., 2015, A Hessian- based Methodology for Automatic Surface Crack Detection and Classification from Pavement Images: Nondestructive Characterization for Composite Materials, Aerospace Engineering, Civil Infrastructure, and Homeland Security 2015, Proc. of SPIE, March 8- 12, 2015.

Maser, K. "Integration of Ground Penetrating Radar and Infrared Thermography for Bridge Deck Condition Assessment." Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering (2009): Nantes, France.

2.3.4 Mean Texture Depth (MTD) measured at traffic speed for friction prediction

Pavement texture is related to pavement safety, comfort, and deterioration. The World Road Association has established 4 standard categories of texture that are distinguished by wavelength
[1] as shown in Figure a. These categories are microtexture (wavelengths up to 0.5 mm), macrotexture (0.5 to 50 mm), megatexture (50 to 500 mm), and roughness (wavelengths larger than 500 mm).

A graph showing categories of surface texture/influence on pavement structure.

Figure a: Categories of surface texture/influence of texture on pavement surface characteristics

Mean Texture Depth (MTD) is a standard metric to measure pavement macrotexture. Macrotexture directly influences the amount of friction that can be provided to tires in wet weather. Macrotexture is also related to wet weather splash and spray, sound generated by tires over a pavement, and it's partially related to dry weather friction [2]. Macrotexture is also related to raveling [3,4]. Raveling is a pavement distress that can be defined as, "the wearing away of the pavement surface due to a loss of asphalt or tar binder and dislodged aggregate particles".
This distress indicates that either asphalt binder has hardened appreciably or that a poor-quality mixture is present.

MTD should be measured throughout a pavement's life to ensure that safe levels of friction are available and to help determine if repairs are needed for any raveling-related deterioration. The traditional sand patch method for measuring MTD is documented in [5]. It is time consuming and expensive to use this method on many roads throughout a highway. Accordingly, a method to calculate MTD that overcomes these limitations has been developed using tire noise generated at traffic speed [6.7]. The method uses the acoustic sensor (directional microphone) placed behind the rear tires and pointed towards the tire-pavement interface as shown in Figure b. An algorithm is applied to the acoustic data that uses the concept of Principle Component Analysis(PCA). The method has been validated on roads with known MTD values [6,7].

Distribution of MTD along a highway at traffic speed is therefore possible as shown in Figure b. Other studies were also conducted to compare MTD using Laser Crack Measurement System (LCMS) at traffic speed with the result of using static Sand Patch method [8,9,10). The LCMS measured MTD is compatible with the sand patch method and highly repeatable for resolution above 0.5 mm. Measurement of MTD at traffic speed is becoming the trend for the future to characterize the condition of the roadway.

LCMS measured MTD has been used to correlate with Skid resistance (SN) measured by ASTM Locked Wheel Skid Trailer [11]. Higher SN represents greater skid resistance. Road surface friction minimizes skidding and reduces road crashes. Field results are promising.

Both macrotexture and macrotexture played major role to determine pavement friction [12]. Microtexture is dominant for friction at low speed, while macrotexture is dominant for friction at high speed. Macrotexture accounts for over 90% of friction above 90 kph (56 mph). The friction is usually measured on wet surfaces since the friction is generally a problem only on wet surfaces. Also, dry friction measurements create a big deal of wear on tires.

The first image is of a microphone picking up sound waves from a rolling tire.  The second image is of an arial view of Beverly, MA of a MTD distribution.  There are lots of green indicating eM TD (mm) between .48 and .99.  A few yellow lines indicating a rand between 1.00 - 1.35.  And some red in the central part with a range of 1.36 - 1.85.

Figure b: (Left) Microphone attached to the vehicle and (right) MTD distribution for city of Beverly, MA

Li et al. [13]) found that surface friction is related to macrotexture linearly with a coefficient of 0.97 when pavement is wet as shown in Figure c. The y axis is the wet pavement coefficient of friction (COF). ASTM E-274 provides a field test method by using a locked wheel device to measure the friction coefficient. The x axis is the macrotexture MTD. Figure 4 represents the potential to predict wet pavement friction through MTD. The predicted friction could be used as a reference for pavement quality assessment at traffic speed.

We will deploy two microphones at the rear wheels to measure the tire noises while driving at traffic speed to determine the MTD values for every 20 meters along the highway. This method can then be compared with LCMS measured MTD values. We will then use Locked Wheel Skid Trailer to determine the corresponding Skid Resistance Number (SN). The objective is to validate the traditional ASTM skid trailer with MTD measured by microphones attached at the rear wheels of a vehicle. The indirect measured MTD at traffic speed is to predict wet skid resistance of pavement in a highway. This method is accurate, effortless, economical, and run at traffic speed between 20 to 55 MPH for MTD values of between 0.2 mm to 3mm. The lower limit of 0.2 mm can be improved further if a smooth tire is used. Furthermore, this value is much less than the lower limit resolution of 1mm or 0.5 mm by using LCMS method at traffic speed.

To the left is a graph with an horizontal axis of MTD (mm) from 0 to 1.75 and a vertical axis of Wet Pavement COF (No Dim.) from 0 to .8.  There are three black triangles at coordinates: (.12,.1), (1.12,.45), (1.5,.7).  On the right is a table with two columns: Friction interval, Accident rate.  The values are <0.15,.80; 0.15 - 0.24, 0.55; 0.25 - 0.34, 0.25; 0.35 - 0.44, 0.20;

Figure c: Relationship between wet COF with MTD Tab 1: Accident Rates at Different Friction Intervals

The predicted friction could be used as a reference for pavement quality assessment since it is related to the accident rate on road as shown in Table 1 [14, 15]. Meanwhile, the critical macrotexture depth is 0.4 mm; below which the accident rate on rainy days increases noticeably.

References

  1. S.J. Shaffer, A.C. Christiaen, M.J. Rogers and Battelle "Assessment of Friction-Based Pavement Methods and Regulations", National Transportation Research Center (NTRCI) (2006)
  2. Rasmussen and Sohaney, "Measuring and Analyzing Pavement Texture", Wiegand, Harrington (2001)
  3. Buchanan and Powell, "Expanding the Market for Screenings -21 Million ESALS and Counting" (2010)
  4. Jones, Harvey, Mateos and Al-Qadi, "Advances in Pavement Design Through Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing" Pg. 51 (2012)
  5. ASTM Standard E965 − 96, "Test Method for Measuring Pavement Macrotexture Depth Using a Volumetric Technique", 1996 (Reapproved 2006)
  6. Zhang, Y., G. McDaniel, M.L. Wang, "Pavement Microtexture Measurement using Tire/Road Noise", Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring, Volume 5 Number 3, 253-261, July, 2015.
  7. Zhang, Y., G. McDaniel, M.L. Wang, "Estimation of Pavement Microtexture with Acoustic Measurement through Principal Component Analysis" Journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE, 140 (2), 2013.
  8. Drenth, Ju, Tan. (2016). "Traffic-speed MTD Measurements of Asphalt Surface Courses." Pavemetrics Systems inc.
  9. Celko, Kovac, Kotek. (2016). "Analysis of the pavement surface texture by 3D scanner." 6th Transport Research Arena
  10. Laurent, Hebert, Talbot. (2016). "Automated Detection of Sealed Cracks Using 2D and 3D Road Surface Data." Pavemetrics Systems Inc.
  11. Zahir, Hossain, Miller. (2015). "3-D Laser Data Collection and Analysis of Road Surface Texture." ROAD PROFILE USERS' GROUP MEETING, RALEIGH, NC
  12. Sandberg, U., and Ejsmont, J. A. (2002). Tyre/road noise reference book. Informex, Kisa, Sweden.
  13. Li, S., Noureldin, S., and Zhu, K. (2010a). "Safety Enhancement of the INDOT Network Pavement Friction Testing Program: Macrotexture and Microtexture Testing Using Laser Sensors."Report No. FHWA/IN/JTRP-2010/25, Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, India.
  14. Li, H., Tang, B., Shao, D., Li, M., and Gao, J. (2010b). "Impact of Macrotexture Depth and its Variation on Safety on Rainy Days." Proc. of ICCTP 2010: Integrated Transportation Systems – Green, intelligent, reliable, ASCE, pp. 484 – 495.
  15. Wallman, C., and Astrom, H. (2001), "Friction Measurement Methods and the Correlation between Road Friction and Traffic Safety." Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.

2.4 Performance Improvement Metrics: Data Model Summary

Table a: Data to be collected and used to assess the Economic and Environmental impacts.
Data Contribution Data Source Data to Collect Performance Matrices Comments
Maintenance (Economic) Network-wide Inspection Data IRI
  • Relative inspection cost
  • Average pavement quality
  • Change in maintenance cost
  • Labor productivity
  • Change property value
  • Change in lost time
  • Reduction in fuel use
TREDIS
Model
Pavement conditions index
Inspection time and extent
Inspection cost
Distresses
GIS referencing data
DOTs Salt and plowing history
Inspection history and cost
Location roadway condition
Maintenance history and cost
Highway distress record
VMT
Environment Network-wide Inspection Data IRI
  • Change in life cycle emission
  • Change in material and energy use for maintenance
  • Change in ambient noise
USDOT
Valuation

Athena LCA

Pavement conditions index
DOTs AADT
Vehicle classification
Maintenance history
Material quantity and supply
Record of noise
Construction equipment record
Third-party data Weather
Property value
Emission by vehicle type

Table b: Data to be collected to assess the impact of safety and congestion due to improved network-wide data collection and management systems.
Data Contribution Data Source Data to Collect Performance Matrices Comments
Safety Network-wide Inspection Data IRI
  • Accident exposure and risk
  • Extend and time of work zones
  • Secondary accidents
  • Accident hotspots
Traffic assignment

Highway Safety Manual

Pavement conditions index
Macrotexture Depth
Distresses (potholes, rutting, etc.)
GIS referencing
Third-party data Police accident records no value no value
Crash location
Location roadway condition
Crash behavioral
Congestion due to crash (Responses time)
Congestion Network-wide Inspection Data IRI
  • Travel time reduction
  • Queues and Delays
  • Speed distribution
  • Travel time reliability
Traffic simulation

Traffic assignment

Corridor analysis tools

Pavement conditions index
Destresses
GIS referencing
Third-party data AADT
Vehicle classification
Speed
Intersection inventory
Weather conditions

2.5 Resumes for Key Staff

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    Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted                                                                                                                     
    Redacted                                                                                                                    
    Redacted                                                                                                                 
    Redacted                                                                                                                  
    Redacted                                                                                                       
    Redacted                                        

Redacted                                            

  • Redacted                                                                                                                 
    Redacted                           
  • Redacted                                                                                                                  
    Redacted                                                                   
  • Redacted                                                                                                                     
    Redacted                                                                                                             
    Redacted                                                                                                                   
    Redacted

Redacted                                       
Redacted Redacted                                           
Redacted                               
Redacted                                                                

Redacted                   
Redacted                  Redacted                                                                 Redacted 
Redacted                  Redacted                                                                 Redacted   
Redacted                  Redacted                                                                 Redacted          

Redacted        
Redacted          Redacted                                                                                   
Redacted          Redacted                                                                                              
Redacted          Redacted                                                                                       
Redacted          Redacted                                                                                            
                       Redacted                                   
Redacted          Redacted                                                                        
Redacted          Redacted                                                                                              
Redacted          Redacted                                                         
Redacted          Redacted                                                                                            
                       Redacted             

Redacted
Redacted                                                   

  • Redacted                                                                                                              
    Redacted                                                                                                           
    Redacted                                                                                                            
  • Redacted                                                                                                              
    Redacted                                                                                                         
    Redacted                                                                                                      
    Redacted                                              
  • Redacted                                                                                                            
    Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted                                                                                                           
    Redacted                                                                   
  • Redacted                                                                                                       
    Redacted                                                                                                                  
    Redacted                                              
  • Redacted                                                                                                                
    Redacted                                                                                                   
    Redacted                                                                                          
  • Redacted                                                        
  • Redacted                                                                                                        
    Redacted                                                                                     
    Redacted                                                                                                                  
  • Redacted                                                                                                                 
    Redacted                                                                                                                     
    Redacted                                                                                          
  • Redacted                                                                                                                   
    Redacted                                                                                                        
    Redacted                                                
  • Redacted                                                                                                                 
    Redacted                                                                                                          
    Redacted                                                                                                  
  • Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted                                                                                                           
    Redacted                                                                                                              

Redacted                       

  • Redacted                                                                                                                  
    Redacted                                                                             
  • Redacted                                                                                                                 
    Redacted                              
  • Redacted                                                                                                                    
    Redacted                                                                                                                   
    Redacted                                                                          
  • Redacted                                                                                                                   
    Redacted                                                                                                                  
    Redacted                                    
  • Redacted                                         
    • Redacted                                                                                        
    • Redacted                                                                                                  
      Redacted                                                                                                        
      Redacted               
    • Redacted                                                                                                         
      Redacted                                                                                                             
      Redacted                                                                                                      
      Redacted  

Redacted                                                   

  • Redacted                                                                                                                    
    Redacted                                                                                                                  
    Redacted                                                                                                             
    Redacted                                                                                                          
    Redacted                                                                                                                  
    Redacted                                                                                                              
    Redacted
  • Redacted                                                                                                                 
    Redacted                                                                                                               
  • Redacted                                                                                                             
    Redacted                                                                                                                   

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted                                             

Redacted                           
Redacted                                                                                                 Redacted       
Redacted                                   
Redacted                                                                                                        
Redacted                                                                                                 
Redacted                                                                                                Redacted
Redacted                     

Redacted                          
Redacted                                                                                                 Redacted        
Redacted                    
Redacted                                                                                                 Redacted    
Redacted                                                                              
Redacted                                                        
Redacted                                                                                    Redacted    
Redacted                                                                                    Redacted    
Redacted                                                                                    Redacted    
Redacted                                                                                                 Redacted   
Redacted     

Redacted        

  • Redacted                                                                                                              
    Redacted                                                                                                            
    Redacted                                                                           
  • Redacted                                                                                                                    
    Redacted                                                                                                                  
    Redacted                                                             
  • Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted                                                                                                                
    Redacted                                                                    
  • Redacted                                                                                                                
    Redacted                                                                                                                 
    Redacted                                                                                                       
  • Redacted                                                                                                                    
    Redacted                                                                                                                  
    Redacted                                                                                                                    
    Redacted                       
  • Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted                                                                                                                 
  • Redacted                                                                                                                    
    Redacted                                                                                                  
  • Redacted                                                                                                                   
    Redacted                                                                                                                     
  • Redacted                                                                                                           
    Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted                                   
  • Redacted                                                                                                                 
    Redacted                                                                                                                  
    Redacted                                                  
  • Redacted                                                                                                        
    Redacted                                                                   
  • Redacted                                                                                                                 
    Redacted                                                                 
  • Redacted 
  • Redacted                                                                                                               
  • Redacted                                                                                                            
    Redacted                           

Redacted                               
Redacted                                                                                                                        
Redacted                                     

Redacted                             
Redacted                                                                                                       

Redacted                           
Redacted                                                                    
Redacted                                                                                                                 
Redacted                                                     
Redacted                                                
Redacted                                                                                
Redacted                                                                                      

Redacted                        
Redacted                                                                                                                      
Redacted                                                                                                                   
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                         
Redacted                                                                                                                    
Redacted                                                                                                                         
Redacted                                                                                                                  
Redacted                                                                                                                    
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                          
Redacted                                                                                                                         
Redacted             

Redacted                                                                                                                
Redacted                                                                                                               
Redacted                                                                                                              
Redacted                                                                                                          
Redacted                                                                                                         
Redacted                                                                                                                   
Redacted                                                                                                                S,

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted                             

Redacted                   
Redacted                                        Redacted                        Redacted         Redacted 
Redacted                
Redacted                                        Redacted                        Redacted         Redacted 
Redacted                                        Redacted                        Redacted         Redacted 

Redacted          
Redacted                         Redacted                                                                               
                                      Redacted                    
Redacted                          Redacted                                                              
Redacted                         Redacted                                                                               
                                      Redacted                             
Redacted                                                                                                    
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                         Redacted                                                                       
Redacted                         Redacted                                                                                
                                      Redacted  
Redacted                                                                                                                 
                                      Redacted         
Redacted                         Redacted                                                                                
Redacted                                                                                                                 

Redacted    
Redacted                                  

  • Redacted                                                                                                                
    Redacted                                                                                                                   
    Redacted
  • Redacted                                                                                                                 
    Redacted                                                                                                                   
    Redacted                                                      
  • Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted                                                                                                                  
    Redacted                                                 
  • Redacted                                                                                                            
    Redacted                                                                                                           
    Redacted                                                                                                         
  • Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted                                                                                                           
    Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted                                                   
  • Redacted                     
  • Redacted                                                                                                                  
    Redacted                                                                                                                   
    Redacted                                                        

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted                               

Redacted               
Redacted                       
Redacted                            
Redacted                            

Redacted                    
Redacted                                           
Redacted                                           

Redacted      
Redacted           
Redacted              

Redacted           
Redacted         Redacted                                                                                   
                      Redacted                                                                                        
                      Redacted                       
Redacted         Redacted                                        
Redacted                                                                         
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted     
Redacted                                     

  • Redacted                                                                                               
    Redacted                                                                                                       
    Redacted                                                                                                           
  • Redacted                                                                                                     
    Redacted                                                      
  • Redacted                                                                                                       
    Redacted                                                                                                         
    Redacted                                                                                      
  • Redacted                                                                                                              
    Redacted                                                                                                        
    Redacted
  • Redacted                   
  • Redacted                                                                                                         
    Redacted                                                                           
  • Redacted                                                                                                       
    Redacted                                            
  • Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted                                                                       
  • Redacted                                                                                                     
    Redacted                                                                                                 
    Redacted                                                                                                         
  • Redacted                                                                                                            
    Redacted                                                                                                         
    Redacted                                                                   

Redacted                  

  • Redacted                                                                                                              
    Redacted                                                                                                                 
    Redacted       

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted          
Redacted                                       
Redacted                               
Redacted                                                             

Redacted            
Redacted                      
Redacted                      
Redacted            
Redacted 
Redacted                  
Redacted     
Redacted  

Redacted              
Redacted                  
Redacted           
Redacted          
Redacted                                 
Redacted  

Redacted    
Redacted      
Redacted      

Redacted       
Redacted                   
Redacted  
Redacted 


Redacted  

Redacted

Redacted                                                  
Redacted                               
Redacted        
Redacted                                                                                
Redacted            
Redacted                         
Redacted        

Redacted
Redacted         

  • Redacted                                                                                                    
    Redacted                                                                                                           
    Redacted
  • Redacted                                                                                                   
    Redacted                                                                                                            
    Redacted                                                                                                       
  • Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted                                                  
  • Redacted                                                                                                        
    Redacted                                                                                                       
    Redacted           
  • Redacted                                                                                                    
    Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted 
  • Redacted                 
  • Redacted                                                                                                          
    Redacted                               
  • Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted                                                                                                       
    Redacted                                          
  • Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted                                                                                                     
    Redacted                                                                                                       

Redacted                       

  • Redacted                                                                                                           
    Redacted                                                                                                             
    Redacted                                                                                                          
    Redacted                                          
  • Redacted                                                                                                            
    Redacted                                                                                                     
    Redacted 
  • Redacted                                                                                                         
    Redacted                                                                                                     
    Redacted                                                                                                               
    Redacted            

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     

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Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
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Redacted                                                                                                                     
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Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted                                                                                                                     
Redacted