Work Zone Mobility and Safety Program

3.0 Potential TMP Components

This section contains a comprehensive list of the components that could be considered for inclusion in transportation management plans (TMPs). This list is intended to serve as guidance. The order, terminology, and inclusion of the components may vary by agency and/or type of project. The level of detail of the TMP depends on whether a project is classified as significant; agency policies, procedures, and guidelines; and the potential work zone impacts of the project. While a State and local transportation agency[1] may include many of these components in a major TMP, it is not expected that agencies would include many of them in a basic TMP. Most agencies have temporary traffic control (TTC) plan policies and report procedures in place for basic TMPs, in the form of traffic control plans (TCPs) or maintenance of traffic (MOT) plans.

TMP components may be described in other existing reports the agency has for the project. For example, an agency may have a detailed project design report with sections for geotechnical, bridge, drainage, and pavement. Many of the suggested items outlined in Sections 3.1 through 3.5 are included in preliminary design reports. In such cases, an agency may decide to include a summary of these items or a reference to such items in the TMP for coordination purposes.

The components discussed in this section include elements of the TMP document itself, as well as elements for implementation and evaluation of the TMP. A definition and a description of some of the key items and issues to consider for each component are provided. Most of the information is based on policies, procedures, guidance, manuals, and practices from agencies currently implementing TMPs.

Table 3.1 summarizes some recommended components for agencies to consider for their TMPs. The individual TMP components are described in more detail in the subsections that follow the table. In addition, a TMP Component Checklist is provided in Appendix A. This checklist may be used by agencies as a starting point to develop their own checklists to assist preparers and reviewers of TMPs.

Minnesota DOT's Traffic Engineering Manual contains a TMP checklist, which focuses on traffic control considerations.

Source: Minnesota Department of Transportation, Traffic Engineering Manual (Chapter 8: Work Zone Traffic Control), June 2000, URL: (Accessed 07/21/05).

Table 3.1 Potential TMP Components
TMP Component Brief Description
  1. Introductory Material
Cover page, Licensed Engineer stamp page (if required by the agency), table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of abbreviations and symbols, and terminology
  1. Executive Summary
Overview of each of the TMP components
  1. TMP Roles and Responsibilities
TMP manager, stakeholders/review committee, approval contact(s), TMP implementation task leaders (e.g., public information liaison, incident management coordinator, etc.), TMP monitoring, and emergency contacts
  1. Project Description
Information such as project type, project background, project area/corridor, project goals and constraints, proposed construction phasing/staging, general schedule and timeline, and related projects
  1. Existing and Future Conditions
For the project area, including data collection and modeling approach, existing roadway characteristics (history, roadway classification, number of lanes, geometrics, urban/suburban/ rural), existing and historical traffic data (volumes, speed, capacity, volume to capacity ratio, percent trucks, queue length, peak traffic hours), existing traffic operations (signal timing, traffic controls), incident and crash data, local community and business concerns/issues, traffic growth rates (for future construction dates), and traffic predictions during construction (volume, delay, queue)
  1. Work Zone Impacts Assessment
Depending on the type of TMP, could just be a qualitative assessment of the potential work zone impacts and the effect of the chosen management strategies; or a detailed analysis of the same, or both
  1. Selected Work Zone Impacts Management Strategies
For the mainline and detour routes by construction phasing, including TTC strategies, PI strategies, and TO strategies. Findings and recommendations
  1. TMP Monitoring Requirements
TMP monitoring requirements and what should be included in the evaluation report of the TMP successes and failures
  1. Contingency Plans
Potential problems and corrective actions to be taken, standby equipment or personnel
  1. TMP Implementation Costs
Itemized costs, cost responsibilities/sharing opportunities, and funding source(s)
  1. Special Considerations
As needed
  1. Attachments
As needed

3.1 Introductory Material

This section contains introductory material for the report. Components may include:

  • Cover page. The cover page should contain the title/project name, date, and the name of the agency and/or person responsible for the report with contact information.
  • Licensed Engineer stamp page (if necessary). This page would include the name of the project, a statement that the TMP was developed under the direction of a licensed engineer, and the signature, printed name, and license stamp of the engineer responsible for the TMP development.
  • Table of contents. The table of contents lists the sections and subsections of the report with their page numbers.
  • List of figures. This component lists the figures and page numbers in the report.
  • List of tables. This lists the tables in the report.
  • List of abbreviations and symbols. This lists repeated abbreviations and mathematical symbols found in the report, in alphabetical order.
  • Terminology. The terminology component describes the key technical terms found in the report.

3.2 Executive Summary

The executive summary should contain a brief overview and summary of the project, general approach, selected construction phasing and staging approach(es), anticipated work zone impacts of the project, the chosen TMP strategies, cost estimate for the TMP, links to locations of specific TMP components, and conclusions/recommendations for the project.

3.3 TMP Roles and Responsibilities

The roles and responsibilities for the development, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of the TMP should be documented. This may include, but is not limited to:

  • TMP manager. The person responsible for the overall development and implementation of the TMP. The updated Rule (Rule) requires that both the agency and the contractor designate a trained person at the project level who has the primary responsibility and sufficient authority for implementation of the TMP (see Section 1.5 for more information on the Rule).
  • Stakeholders/review committee. This committee provides input and information to the TMP manager, and assists in the decision-making process. Depending on the type and complexity of the project, the stakeholders committee may include the highway patrol, police, city traffic engineers, business representatives, transit and school representatives, as well as emergency and towing services.
  • Approval contact(s). The person or persons, if any, who need to give final approval to the TMP.
  • TMP implementation task leaders. These are project engineers responsible for implementing specific tasks recommended by the TMP (e.g., public information liaison, incident management coordinator, etc.).
  • TMP monitors. TMP monitors conduct windshield surveys (observations based on driving through the work zone) and site visits to assess firsthand the effectiveness of the phasing and staging plans and TMP strategies. They inform the TMP manager when strategies are not working according to plan.
  • Emergency contacts. This lists the contact person(s) with each emergency service agency, including police, fire, and ambulance.

The Indiana Department of Transportation's Design Manual states that the anticipated traffic impacts of a project will dictate the extent and nature of the TMP team's responsibilities.

Source: Indiana Department of Transportation, Chapter 81 of the Indiana Design Manual, Transportation Management Plans, URL: (Accessed 8/16/05)

3.4 Project Description

This component of the TMP presents the scope and definition of the project. It may include:

  • Project background. This includes a brief description of the project, its purpose, and its developmental history. It may also include additional information related to the project, roadway, or study area.
  • Project type. The nature of the project, which may range from capital projects, new construction, rehabilitation, major maintenance, to routine maintenance, is identified here.
  • Project area/corridor. This component describes physical extents of the construction or maintenance work, as well as the estimated region(s) and corridor(s) that may be affected by the proposed project. Using a map to show this information is recommended.
  • Project goals and constraints. A brief listing of the goals, benefits, and challenges that are expected by this project.
  • Proposed construction phasing/staging. This includes the project phasing, lane and/or facility closure strategies, whether or not high-occupancy vehicle (HOV)/temporary lanes/shoulders will be utilized for general traffic, ramps/interchanges closures, construction strategy, closure hours, and duration. TTC plans should be provided in separate diagrams.
  • General schedule and timeline. The start and finish dates for the project and phasing schedule (if appropriate), including all major milestones.
  • Related projects. Other ongoing/planned projects in the vicinity of the project area that may cause cumulative impacts to the region(s) and corridor(s).

3.5 Existing and Future Conditions

This TMP component provides information on existing and anticipated future conditions in the study area including traffic, safety, and business and community access. While the level of detail will vary based on the project, it should consider:

  • Data collection and modeling approach. A brief discussion on how existing traffic data and information was obtained, and what approach was used to estimate future conditions.
  • Existing roadway characteristics. This includes a history of roadways in the study area, roadway classification(s), number of lanes, geometrics, and urban/suburban/rural.
  • Existing and historical traffic data. This includes measures such as volumes, speed, capacity, volume to capacity ratio, percent trucks, queue length, peak traffic hours, and through versus local traffic. If possible, historical traffic data should be within the last two to three years.
  • Existing traffic operations. This includes signal timing, delay, and traffic control types.
  • Incident data. Where feasible, historical incident data including number and type of crashes should be documented. The historical incident information should be current and the number of prior years of data may vary according to the agency's crash data recording system. Usually crash data for the last three years are appropriate.
  • Local community and business concerns/issues. Input from the community and business representatives should be included and prioritized to address local concerns.
  • Traffic growth rates (for future construction dates). A brief discussion on the growth rates used for analysis, including the source and any assumption.
  • Traffic predictions during construction (volume, delay, queue). Based on the existing and historical data, traffic growth rates, and the modeling/estimating approach used, estimates of traffic and safety during construction should be developed and documented. Future estimates should be compared to the existing data.

3.6 Work Zone Impacts Assessment Report

Depending upon the type of TMP, the work zone impacts assessment component may include:

  • A qualitative assessment of the potential impacts of the work zone and those of the chosen management strategies; or
  • A quantitative analysis of the impacts of the work zone and those of the chosen management strategies; or
  • Both qualitative and quantitative assessments.

Detailed information regarding the work zone impacts assessment process is contained in Work Zone Impacts Assessment: An Approach to Assess and Manage Work Zone Safety and Mobility Impacts of Road Projects.[2]

A work zone impacts assessment report may include:

  • Qualitative summary of anticipated work zone impacts. This involves a brief discussion on how the project is expected to impact its vicinity, including major corridors, local streets, how traffic patterns are expected to change, and an estimate on how traffic demand might change due to the project.

During the I-5 Interstate Bridge Trunnion Repair project in Washington State, it was estimated that without a Traffic Management Plan (TMP) during the bridge closure and if there was no diversion or cancellation of interstate trips, traffic backups at the I-5 Interstate Bridge could have potentially extended 50 miles to the north and 40 miles to the south. As a result, a multi-jurisdiction, bi-State Traffic Management Team worked cooperatively to develop a TMP to lessen the traffic impacts of the northbound structure closure.

Source: Southwest Washington Regional Transportation Council, I-5 Interstate Bridge Trunnion Repair Project Traffic Management Plan Report, Executive Summary, Final Draft, URL: (Accessed 07/21/05).

  • Impacts assessment of alternative project design and management strategies (in conjunction with each other). This is a discussion on how the project design and mitigation efforts would impact the project area, how they would affect each other, and how they might adversely impact specific areas, if any.
    • Construction approach/phasing/staging strategies. This lists the benefits and costs of the construction strategies, the expected duration, and expected delays resulting from this strategy.
    • Work zone impacts management strategies. Management strategies to be implemented for the project, including temporary traffic control, public information, and traffic operations strategies, may be listed here or in a subsequent section. Section 3.7 of this document provides more detail on work zone management strategies.
  • Traffic analysis results (if applicable). This includes:
    • Traffic analysis strategies. A brief description on how the expected future traffic conditions were determined. Any traffic reduction factors or other parameters assumed for the calculations should be documented.
    • Identify measures of effectiveness. This lists the measures of effectiveness used for the analysis, such as capacity, volume, queue, speed, travel time, diversion, safety, noise, environmental, adequacy of detour routes, cost effectiveness, etc.
    • Analysis tool selection methodology and justification. When applicable, list the traffic analysis tools used. Include a brief methodology on how the tool was selected, and criteria used to select the most appropriate tool. Various traffic analysis tools are available for conducting this analysis including QuickZone, QUEWZ, CORSIM, Highway Capacity Manual (HCM), other deterministic methods and/or tools, travel demand models, and/or simulation models.

More information on available software tools that support work zone impacts analysis can be found at the following locations:

    • Analysis results. This involves a comparison between existing and future traffic conditions and operations, with and without the TMP management strategies. The need for traffic analysis within the TMP should be determined on a case-by-case basis. For significant projects, it is preferable to conduct a detailed analysis. A qualitative and/or quantitative assessment of business and community impacts should be included under the analysis results (e.g., access to residences and businesses; access for pedestrians, bicyclists, and persons with disabilities; emergency service impacts (fire, ambulance, police, hospitals); and school bus operations, bus stops, or other transit services). In some cases, a qualitative assessment, while valuable, may underestimate the potential severity of traffic impacts to the community. A quantitative examination of traffic impacts to the local community may be necessary for some projects. The potential community impacts may be a significant driving factor in the project, resulting in changes to construction phasing or staging and/or the use of several transportation management strategies for mitigation. Seasonal impacts should also be considered.

      For cost effectiveness, constructability needs to be balanced with the work zone transportation management strategies in order to best serve the public, construction workers, and agency. There may be more than one option for addressing safety and mobility during construction. In order to decide which option is appropriate, the benefits and costs of the transportation management strategies could be estimated and compared. The cost evaluation may consider on-site costs (e.g., strategy, right-of-way, environmental, delay, safety, accessibility to businesses and community, user costs) and detour costs, both capital and operating.

Designers should consider road user costs when determining the most appropriate construction staging and final design. This should be done early in the design process while there is still flexibility in the design. The optimal design will mitigate or avoid disruptions before they can be created.

Source: New Jersey Department of Transportation, Road User Cost Manual, June 2001, URL: (Accessed 07/21/05).

  • Selected alternative. Depending on the type of TMP required, the information required for the selected alternative may range from a list referring to the MUTCD or agency standards, to comprehensive plan sheets and special provisions. The level of detail should be determined on a project-by-project basis. Where appropriate, the construction approach/phasing/staging strategy should be provided on detailed plan sheets with plans for accommodating traffic at each stage. The work zone transportation management strategies should be documented on the plan sheets where possible (e.g., geometric improvements, control devices, etc.). If not, the strategies should be listed with text describing any restrictions, usage (duration, stage/phase, etc.), or other considerations. The type, number, location, and timing for traffic control devices should be listed for directing traffic through the work zone. Any work schedule restrictions should be documented for each stage (e.g., night work, peak hour restrictions, etc.).

3.7 Selected Work Zone Impacts Management Strategies

Work zone impacts management strategies are intended to minimize traffic delays, maintain or improve motorist and worker safety, and maintain access for businesses and residents. For the TMP, work zone impact management strategies should be identified for both the mainline and detour routes for the selected construction phasing/staging approach(es). Where appropriate, the management strategies should be documented on plan sheets. Agencies may elect to develop separate sections or plans specific to the PI and/or TO strategies to distinguish them from the TTC strategies.

TTC, PI, and TO work zone management strategies that could be considered for the TMP are defined in Section 4.0 of this document. Appendix B provides information helpful for determining when the strategies should be considered, pros/cons, and whether the strategies are likely to improve mobility and/or safety.

The work zone impacts management strategies component of the TMP also highlights some of the key findings for the selected alternative, discusses feasibility, anticipated traffic or safety concerns (e.g., specific roadways with long estimated queues, accessibility issues, ability of the detour routes to handle diverted traffic), and any special provisions or issues related to the work zone management.

3.8 TMP Monitoring

3.8.1 Monitoring Requirements

Monitoring requirements for the TMP should be included in the TMP and be made part of the construction contract. This should include or refer to any agency policies, standards, requirements, and procedures for TMP implementation and monitoring. The evaluation should consider both the performance of individual TMP strategies as well as overall performance of the work zone and work zone impact area. This may include but is not limited to:

  • Verification of work zone setup.
  • Identification and process for monitoring TMP performance (e.g., volume counts, queue length, crashes, complaints and feedback, surveys, etc.).
  • Tracking TMP implementation costs and comparing them to the budgeted costs.
  • Approach for corrective action when TMP performance requirements are not met.
  • Submission of alternative TMPs and the approval process.
  • Who is responsible for each component of the TMP monitoring.

3.8.2 Evaluation Report for the TMP

The TMP should include reference to the development of an evaluation report upon completion of construction to document lessons learned and provide recommendations on how to improve the TMP process and/or modify guidelines.

Indiana DOT's Design Manual recommends that the evaluation report include the following:

  • An overall statement reflecting the usefulness of the TMP.
  • Where changes were necessary to correct oversights in the TMP.
  • What changes were made to the original plan and if they were successful.
  • Public reaction to the TMP.
  • The average delay time encountered (e.g., average queues, slowdowns).
  • Identification of the peak loading times.
  • Frequency of legitimate complaints and the nature of the complaints.
  • Types of crashes that occurred during construction.
  • Suggested improvements or changes for similar future projects.
  • What areas of the TMP were successfully implemented.

Source: Indiana Department of Transportation, Chapter 81 of the Indiana Design Manual, Transportation Management Plans, URL: (Accessed 8/16/05).

3.9 Contingency Plans

The contingency plan component should specify activities that should be undertaken to minimize traffic impacts when unexpected events occur in the work zone (e.g., crashes, unforeseen traffic demand, inclement weather, etc.). The contractor's contingency plan should address activities under the contractor's control within the work zone. Contingency plans should be included in all TMPs.

The California Department of Transportation's (Caltrans) Transportation Management Plan Guidelines recommend that a TMP contingency plan should include but not be limited to the following:

  • Information that clearly defines trigger points which require lane closure termination (i.e., inclement weather, length of traffic queue exceeds threshold).
  • Decision tree with clearly defined lines of communication and authority.
  • Specific duties of all participants during lane closure operations, such as, coordination with law enforcement or local police, etc.
  • Names, phone numbers and pager numbers for the TMP manager or their designee, the resident engineer (RE), the maintenance superintendent, the permit inspector, the on-site traffic advisor, law enforcement area commander(s), appropriate local agency representatives, and other applicable personnel.
  • Coordination strategy (and special agreements if applicable) between the TMP manager, RE, on-site traffic advisor, maintenance, law enforcement, and local agencies.
  • Contractor's contingency plan.
  • Standby equipment, agency personnel, and availability of local agency personnel for callout (typically requires a cooperative agreement).
  • Development of contingencies based on maintaining minimum level of service or performance standards.

Source: California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Transportation Management Plan Guidelines, July 1, 2001. Also available in the Caltrans Deputy Directive DD-60, Transportation Management Plans, June 2000, URL: (Accessed 08/16/05).

3.10 TMP Implementation Costs

Estimating the work zone management strategy implementation costs of the TMP and including these costs within the overall project cost is critical, as it may be difficult to obtain additional funding at a later time. It potentially avoids under-allocation of funds. Where feasible, the cost estimates for the various management strategies should be itemized and documented in the TMP, with cost responsibilities, opportunities for sharing or coordinating with other projects, and funding sources specified. TMP components can be funded as part of the construction contract and/or in separate agreements.

3.11 Special Considerations (As Needed)

Any special considerations related to the TMP could be identified under this component. This could reiterate special provisions, highlight considerations that may need to be included in contracting documents, identify work zone management strategies that require implementation prior to construction (public information meetings, brochures, web sites, rideshare programs, coordination with local agencies for detour routes, etc.), etc.

3.12 Attachments (As Needed)

Appendices may be included in the TMP to include information that may be relevant or of interest to the TMP implementer, TMP manager, the agency, or other stakeholders. This could include, but is not limited to observed, historical, and/or estimated traffic volumes, speeds, travel times, level-of-service, delay, crashes; maps; staging/phasing plans; lane closure charts; detailed analysis methodology, assumptions, parameters used; etc.

  1. Hereinafter referred to as agencies.
  2. Available at

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