Leon County, FL Regional Architecture - System Inventory
II Existing and Planned Transportation Systems
This section of the Technical Memorandum presents a framework or baseline for the Department to develop its program for ITS deployment within Leon County. It provides an inventory “snapshot” of the existing and planned transportation system, including travel demand, congestion, safety, operations and management, existing and planned facility improvements, as well as current and planned ITS deployment efforts of both District Three and other regional and local transportation agencies.
II.1 System Inventory
FDOT District Three is responsible for planning, building, maintaining and operating the state and federal roads within the previously illustrated region. This section identifies the features and facilities of this system along with other major facilities that have a direct or indirect effect on the traffic conditions within the Region. It also provides an ITS baseline inventory of the Region.
II.1.1 Overview of Leon County Roadway System
The roadway network within Leon County consists of several facilities that have unique geometric and operational characteristics as shown in Figure 3. The system consists of five primary corridors - Interstate 10, which extends from Jacksonville, passing north of downtown Tallahassee and continuing west toward Pensacola; US 90, which parallels I-10, passing through downtown Tallahassee; US 319, which extends from the Georgia State Line south around downtown Tallahassee to US 98 along the Gulf Coast; US 27, which extends from the southern portions of the State north to the Georgia State Line; and SR 263, or Capital Circle SW, which connects US 319 south of downtown Tallahassee to I-10 and eventually US 27 west and north of downtown.
Interstate 10 (I-10)
I-10 is the primary east-west interstate connecting the southern states, running from Jacksonville on the east coast to Los Angeles on the west coast. It passes through the middle portion of Leon County, and the northern sections of Tallahassee. It is the primary route out of and into Florida for vehicles originating from or traveling to the west. It is also the primary route to I-75 and points south, and Jacksonville and I-95 and points north.
US 319 runs from US 98 along the Gulf Coast north through Tallahassee and beyond into
Georgia. It serves as a beltway around the eastern sections of Tallahassee, and is called Capital Circle SE along this stretch. In addition, it is a primary evacuation route for the counties to the south of Leon County, and a major access route north towards Atlanta.
US 27 is a major highway connecting the southern portions of the state to Georgia and other southern states. It runs through downtown Tallahassee, and along with US 319 is the primary route out of and into Florida for vehicles originating from or traveling to the north.
US 90 is a major highway running east-west that parallels I-10 through the county. It passes through downtown Tallahassee, serving as one of the major links between I-10 and the central business district (CBD).
II.1.2 Inventory of ITS Components / Subsystems
This section identifies a baseline inventory of existing ITS components And deployments that are either operational or under construction within Leon County. Information has been summarized from local agency interviews, workshops, meetings and prior projects undertaken by FDOT, including the Statewide ITS Architecture Development effort currently being conducted, which includes architectural development at the district level, and specifically District Three.
To facilitate discussion of the ITS Architecture in general, and the ITS baseline inventory specifically, ITS components and systems are grouped into four classes: Centers, Roadside, Vehicles, and Travelers. These groups are further subdivided into different areas by functionality or subsystems. There are 19 such subsystems that correspond to existing things in the physical worle such as traffic operations centers, automobiles, and roadside signal controllers. The following is a list of the 19 subsystems.
II.18.104.22.168 Traffic Management
The Traffic Management subsystem communicates with the Roadway Subsystem to monitor and manage traffic flow.
There are currently no active freeway management systems (FMS) on the Interstate highway system in the region. However, there is a conceptual plan for an FMS on I-10 in Leon County, which would include dynamic message signs (DMS), cameras, and vehicle detection.
Traffic signal control is the major method for controlling traffic within an urban or suburban area. Traffic signals operate as either independent, isolated controllers or as part of coordinated systems. For coordinated operations, there are two primary types of traffic signal control systems in use. In a centralized control system, a central computer monitors signal status and traffic demands at each intersection, in real-time, and sends commands to each controller when needed to change timing plans or other operational parameters. Because of the real-time nature of the communications, centralized systems require a dedicated link between the central control system and each intersection.
An integrated freeway management system requires coordination with the traffic signal control systems in the vicinity of interchanges. Often, traffic diversion is required to reduce traffic density along a freeway in the event of an incident. An integrated freeway and traffic signal control system will enable selection of appropriate traffic signal timing plans to facilitate movement off exit ramps and along surface arterials during incident conditions.
The other primary type of signal control system is the closed loop system, in which control functions are distributed between the local controllers, field located master controllers, and a centrally located PC-based computer. Each local controller contains its own set of system timing parameters, and only requires a communications link with a master controller for occasional data transfer and traffic responsive plan selection commands. The operational intelligence of the system lies entirely in the field, and the central computer is used only for database maintenance and operator interface and monitoring. With such a system, the demands for an extensive communications network are minimized.
City of Tallahassee
The City of Tallahassee is currently engaged in a large-scale project to upgrade the region’s signal control system. The Tallahassee Advanced Transportation Management System (TATMS) is a centralized system; it will control and monitor approximately 240 signalized intersections in Tallahassee and Leon County. Over 50 surveillance cameras have been installed for traffic monitoring, incident management (detection and verification), and signal timing evaluation. Other components include emergency preemption systems, and (depending on funding availability) fixed and portable DMSs and traveler advisory radio, as well as emergency vehicle preemption. The system is operational, with completion anticipated sometime in 2001.
II.22.214.171.124 Emergency Management
The Emergency Management subsystem supports public safety including police and fire stations, search and rescue special detachments, and HAZMAT response teams
Emergency Management Services play a role primarily in freeway incident response. Integrated Freeway Management and Emergency Management Services should be expected to reduce the response time critically important during an incident condition.
As far as ITS applications are concerned, EMS can apply to medical (ambulance) services, fire and public safety response services or disaster response services. All local agencies providing these services have some type of wireless communication system (radios). However, there is a wide range of frequencies and system capabilities in use, making it difficult to communicate between these entities.
Incident management is an important aspect of any transportation network with freeways passing through urban areas. Incidents occurring along freeway segments impact more than the freeway itself; traffic spills over onto arterials as drivers divert to avoid the congestion caused by the incident; on-ramps upstream of the incident become clogged, causing backups on the arterial roads in the vicinity of the interchange; and the additional congestion in all areas results in secondary collisions.
Incident management will be covered in a parallel project for District Three regarding the District’s Interstates (I-10). However, it is important to recognize that a transportation system functions as a whole, and requires that each piece work together at all levels (i.e. institutional and operational) so that the system runs safely and efficiently. The Regional Architecture developed in this project will be structured as per the National Architecture to provide points of integration with the Interstate Architecture being developed parallel to this, and vice versa.
Incident management on the District Three Interstates and expressways is executed by an overlapping system of jurisdictions. Troop H of the FHP provides incident response along the Interstate system in the eastern rural and suburban areas of District Three. The FHP monitors and responds to the *FHP cellular call-in program where mobile telephone users can report incidents. The entire length of I-10 through Leon County has a motorist aid call box system with call boxes located every mile on each side of the Interstate. FDOT maintains the call box system, which includes a digital microwave communications backbone, and FHP monitors all incoming calls.
Inter-agency coordination does occur periodically along the Interstates, expressways, and bridges. However, there does not appear to be any regularly scheduled Incident Management coordination meetings or funded Incident Management programs. Tallahassee has developed special timing plans for the management of specific events (i.e., storms, concerts, athletic games, traffic diversions, etc.) in their areas.
Within Leon County, 911 calls are handled either by the Leon County Sheriff’s Office (LCSO), which dispatches county law enforcement or transfers to FHP or the Tallahassee Police Department (TPD); or by TPD, which dispatches Police and Fire, or transfers to FHP. All EMS calls are transferred to Tallahassee Memorial Healthcare (TMH) for dispatch. Law enforcement calls pertaining to the universities or state government complexes are transferred to the respective police department. Automobile accidents in the unincorporated areas, without injuries, are transferred to FHP. Cellular callers reporting incidents that are outside the county are transferred to the Sheriff’s Office of the respective county, both in Florida and Georgia. Several concerns exist regarding incident management, including: (1) The ability to receive real-time information, interpret the data and respond quickly, and (2) Developing an information network that would provide real-time information to travelers.
All counties in the state (including Leon County), and most of the larger municipalities, have established Emergency Operations Centers (EOCs) to coordinate governmental services during weather and other emergencies. Typically, the EOCs are located in secure facilities and are staffed with law enforcement, fire, EMS, public works, traffic engineering, and administrative staff, to allow for immediate interaction between the various services. In some jurisdictions an Emergency Operations Coordinator is a full-time position; in others, those duties are included in one or more other job functions.
The District also provides an EOC for coordinating its services during emergencies. Located in the District’s Main office, EOC representatives from the District’s Contracts,
Surveying/Mapping, Operations, and Physical Plant gather during emergency conditions.
II.126.96.36.199 Transit Management
The Transit Management subsystem manages transit vehicle fleets and coordinates with other modes and transportation services. TalTran maintains a small dispatch center with minimal or no ITS capabilities.
II.188.8.131.52 Archived Data Management
The Archived Data Management subsystem collects, archives, manages, and distributes data generated from ITS sources. The TATMS will provide extensive data collection capabilities; it is unknown whether the data will be stored in an Architecture-compliant format.
II.184.108.40.206 Toll Administration
The Toll Administration subsystem provides general payment administration capabilities and supports the electronic transfer of authenticated funds from the customer to the transportation system operator. There are currently no systems in the region.
II.220.127.116.11 Information Service Provider
The Information Service Provider subsystem collects, processes, stores, and disseminates transportation information to system operators and the traveling public. The Department of Community Affairs maintains a website, called EOC Online, for emergency management personal to access information during hurricane evacuations. EOC Online is produced as an alternative communications device in order to better serve Florida Counties. Any Florida County with Internet access can access various databases. It also allows county EM officials to track requests, update reports, and keep informed of new developments and vital statistics during emergency activation. Other users can access information pertaining to Evacuation Routes, Evacuation Zones, and available Shelters. Users can input their street address and zip code to locate their homes on the map, and can determine which Evacuation Zone they live in and if an Evacuation Order has been given for their zone. Additional information such as Surge Zones, Feeding Facilities, Comfort Stations, etc. is also provided.
II.18.104.22.168 Emissions Management
The Emissions Management subsystem provides the capabilities for air quality managers to monitor and manage air quality. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) currently has a system of ambient air monitoring sites throughout the state; three sites are in the Tallahassee region of Leon County. Two of these sites are used to track ozone levels, and two can track particulate matter levels.
II.22.214.171.124 Fleet and Freight Management
The Fleet and Freight Management subsystem provides the capability for commercial drivers and dispatchers to receive real-time routing information and access databases containing vehicle and cargo locations as well as carrier, vehicle, cargo, and driver information. There are currently no systems in the region.
II.126.96.36.199 Commercial Vehicle Administration
The Commercial Vehicle Administration subsystem performs administrative functions supporting credentials, tax, and safety regulations. There are currently no systems in the region.
II.1.2.2 Roadside Subsystems
Roadside Subsystems consist of intelligent infrastructure distributed along the transportation network which perform surveillance, information provision, and plan execution control functions and whose operation is governed by center subsystems.
The Roadway subsystem includes the equipment distributed on and along the roadway which monitors and controls traffic.
An integrated transportation management system should include pre-trip and en-route driver information regarding traffic congestion, incident conditions, and construction activities. This information can be used to divert motorists to alternate routes thereby reducing traffic congestion and delay along the primary route. With this objective in mind, existing traveler information systems in the region have been identified.
Traffic data within the Counties is facilitated through the use of Traffic Monitoring Sites. The District has seventeen Telemetered Traffic Monitoring Sites (TTMS) located in Leon County providing daily data access to state highways within the County. There are many more Portable Traffic Monitoring Sites (PTMS) throughout the region. These can be used to provide an overview of traffic conditions within the counties, particularly during evacuation operations.
The TATMS controls all signals within the region. These locations include loop detectors to monitor traffic, and over 50 CCTV cameras to monitor traffic conditions at critical locations. In addition, it will ultimately provide en route driver information through DMS and HAR systems. Traveler Information Services (TIS) include any traffic reporting companies, public traveler information programs, or transit information programs. At the present time, with the exception of special events, construction information and some incident management reports, there are no real-time traffic or traveler information services provided on a regular basis by any local public or private agencies, other than safety advisory warnings provided by the FDOT construction office to motorists using Highway Advisory Radio (HAR) systems at construction sites.
A private company has recently renewed an existing public/private contract with the FDOT. The Traveler Information Radio Network (TiRN) will eventually provide traffic information, construction and maintenance reports, and public service announcements via local FM and AM radio stations throughout the State.
II.188.8.131.52 Parking Management
The Parking Management subsystem provides electronic monitoring and management of parking facilities. Future plans for the TATMS include a parking lot advisory system, which will inform drivers of available parking at various locations within the city.
II.184.108.40.206 Toll Collection
The Toll Collection subsystem provides the capability for vehicle operators to pay tolls without stopping their vehicles. There are currently no systems within the county.
II.220.127.116.11 Commercial Vehicle Check
The Commercial Vehicle Check subsystem supports automated vehicle identification at mainline speeds for credential checking, roadside safety inspections, and weigh-in-motion using two-way data exchange. There are currently no systems within the county.
II.1.2.3 Traveler Subsystems
Traveler Subsystems consists of equipment used by travelers to access ITS services pre-trip and en-route. This includes elements that are owned and operated by the traveler as well as elements that are owned by transportation and information providers.
II.18.104.22.168 Remote Traveler Support
The Remote Traveler Support subsystem provides access to traveler information at transit stations, transit stops, other fixed sites along travel routes, and at major trip generation locations such as special event centers, hotels, office complexes, amusement parks, and theaters. Future plans for the TATMS include interactive kiosks at various locations to provide travelers with relevant traffic and transportation information, such as transit schedules.
II.22.214.171.124 Personal Information Access
The Personal Information Access subsystem provides the capability for travelers to receive formatted traffic advisories from their homes, place of work, major trip generation sites, personal portable devices, and over multiple types of electronic media. There are currently no systems within the county.
Vehicle Subsystems cover ITS related elements on vehicle platforms. Vehicle subsystems include general driver information and safety systems applicable to all vehicle types.
The Vehicle subsystem provides the sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions necessary to support efficient, safe, and convenient travel by personal automobile. There are currently no systems within the county.
II.126.96.36.199 Transit Vehicle
The Transit Vehicle subsystem provides the sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions necessary to support safe and efficient movement of passengers. TALTRAN buses are outfitted with electronic fare boxes, and they have future plans to implement various “smart bus” technologies such as automatic vehicle location (AVL) and automatic passenger counters (APC).
II.188.8.131.52 Emergency Vehicle
The Emergency Vehicle subsystem provides the sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions necessary to support safe and efficient emergency response. Most signalized intersections and vehicles within Tallahassee are outfitted with emergency signal preemption systems.
II.184.108.40.206 Commercial Vehicle
The Commercial Vehicle subsystem provides the sensory, processing, storage, and communications functions necessary to support safe and efficient commercial vehicle operations. There are currently no systems within the county.
Table 1 summarizes the existing ITS infrastructure within the region.
II.1.3 Communications Infrastructure / Systems
An inventory of existing communications resources is necessary to plan for the future integration of ITS technologies across the District Three regional areas.
Florida Department of Transportation
A major telecommunications project, the Florida Fiber Network (FFN), is expected to provide a significant communications infrastructure for deployment of ITS technologies within the state.
The project will deploy a statewide fiber optic communications backbone along the Interstate rights-of-way. Public-private partnership opportunities with major telecommunications companies are being considered for sharing of Interstate and expressway rights-of-way in exchange for sharing of communications backbone. The appropriate leases have been signed, and system design and funding is underway.
The Department also maintains a microwave repeater system along portions of the Interstate System for its motorist aid call box systems. Individual call boxes transmit messages to one of a series of receivers located along the Interstate; these messages are then relayed along the system to the appropriate dispatch center.
City of Tallahassee
The Tallahassee Advanced Transportation Management System (TATMS) field communications have been upgraded to a city-wide fiber optic cable network – over seventy miles of fiber cable interconnecting a majority of the signalized intersections in the area. This cable network intersects I-10 at four locations.