# Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study - Bridge Structure Comparative Analysis Technical Report

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Contact Information: FreightFeedback@dot.gov

June 2015

## Table of Contents

- Executive Summary
- Chapter 1. Introduction
- Chapter 2. Crash Analysis
- Chapter 3. Analysis of Safety Vehicle Stability and Control
- Chapter 4. Inspection And Violation Analysis
- Chapter 5. Scenario Analysis
- Appendix A. Revised Desk Scan Report
- Appendix B. Bridge Project Plan/Schedule
- Appendix C. Load Ratings and Analysis

## List of Figures

- Figure 1. Distribution of All Bridges by Bridge Type
- Figure 2. Distribution of Interstate Bridges by Bridge Type
- Figure 3. Distribution of other Bridges on the NHS by Bridge Type
- Figure 4. Distribution of All Bridges by Span Length
- Figure 5. Distribution of Interstate Bridges by Span Length
- Figure 6. Distribution of Other Bridges on the NHS by Span Length
- Figure 7. Distribution of All Bridges by Built Year
- Figure 8. Distribution of Interstate Bridges by Built Year
- Figure 9. Distribution of Other Bridges on the NHS by Built Year
- Figure 10. Comparison of Average Flexural Rating Factors for Different Truck Types
- Figure 11. Comparison of Average Shear Rating Factors for Different Truck Types
- Figure 12. Comparison of Number of Bridges that Require Posting Due to Flexure for Different Truck Types
- Figure 13. Comparison of Number of Bridges that Require Posting Due to Shear for Different Truck Types
- Figure 14. Comparison of Flexural Rating Factors for All Bridges (Compared with 3-S2)
- Figure 15. Comparison of Flexural Rating Factors for All Bridges (Compared with 2-S1-2)
- Figure 16. Comparison of Shear Rating Factors for All Bridges (Compared with 3-S2)
- Figure 17. Comparison of Shear Rating Factors for All Bridges (Compared with 2-S1-2)
- Figure 18. Cumulative Distribution of Flexural Rating Factors of All Bridges (3-S2, Scenarios 1-3)
- Figure 19. Cumulative Distribution of Flexural Rating Factors of All Bridges (2-S1-2, Scenarios 4-6)
- Figure 20. Cumulative Distribution of Shear Rating Factors of All Bridges (3-S2, Scenarios 1-3)
- Figure 21. Cumulative Distribution of Shear Rating Factors of All Bridges (2-S1-2, Scenarios 4-6)
- Figure 22. Distribution of Normalized Flexural Rating Factors for All Bridges (3-S2, Scenario 1, 2 and 3)
- Figure 23. Distribution of Normalized Flexural Rating Factors for All Bridges (2-S1-2, Scenario 4, 5 and 6)
- Figure 24. Distribution of Normalized Shear Rating Factors for All Bridges (3-S2, Scenario 1, 2 and 3)
- Figure 25. Distribution of Normalized Shear Rating Factors for All Bridges (2-S1-2, Scenario 4, 5 and 6)
- Figure 26. Normalized Flexural Load Effects for Simple Spans (3-S2, Scenario 1, 2 and 3)
- Figure 27. Normalized Flexural Load Effects for Simple Spans (2-S1-2, Scenario 4, 5 and 6)
- Figure 28. Normalized Shear Load Effects for Simple Spans (3-S2, Scenario 1, 2 and 3)
- Figure 29. Normalized Shear Load Effects for Simple Spans (2-S1-2, Scenario 4, 5 and 6)
- Figure 30. Normalized Flexural Load Effects for Continuous Spans (3-S2, Scenario 1, 2 and 3)
- Figure 31. Normalized Flexural Load Effects for Continuous Spans (2-S1-2, Scenario 4, 5 and 6)
- Figure 32. Region of Concern for Fatigue in Highway Bridges
- Figure 33. Control Vehicles and Alternative Truck Configurations in Each of the Six Scenarios
- Figure 34. STAA 53’ (max) Semitrailer Single Control Vehicle
- Figure 35. STAA 28’ Double Control Vehicle
- Figure 36. Photo of Newburgh-Beacon Bridge (I-84) Eastbound

## List of Tables

- Table ES1. Truck Configurations and Weight Scenarios Analyzed in the 2014 CTSW Study
- Table ES2. Projected Number of Bridges with Posting Issues for the Entire NHS Inventory
- Table ES3. Projected One-time Bridge Costs for Each Alternative Truck Configuration Scenario ($ billions)
- Table 1. Breakdown of the Bridges in the Sample Database
- Table 2. Projected Number of Posted Bridges for the Entire NHS Inventory
- Table 3. Breakdown of the Bridges on the NHS
- Table 4. Breakdown of the Bridges in the Sample Database
- Table 5. Breakdown of the Sample Database by State
- Table 6. Distribution of the Bridges by Span Length
- Table 7. Distribution of the Bridges by Year Built
- Table 8. Flexural Rating Result Statistics (GFB and Truss Bridges Not Included)
- Table 9. Shear Rating Result Statistics (GFB and Truss Bridges Not Included)
- Table 10. Normalized Flexural Load Rating Results
- Table 11. Normalized Shear Load Rating Results
- Table 12. Projected Number of Posted Bridges for the Entire NHS Inventory
- Table 13. Bridges with RF < 1.0 Sorted by Bridge Type
- Table 14. Posting Projections
- Table 15. Bridges with RF < 1.0 Sorted by Span Length
- Table 16. Bridges with RF < 1.0 Sorted by Year Built
- Table 17. Positive Moment Load Effects for Simple Spans
- Table 18. Shear Load Effects for Simple Spans
- Table 19. Negative Moment Load Effects for Continuous Spans
- Table 20. Normalized Positive Moment Load Effects for Simple Spans
- Table 21. Normalized Shear Load Effects for Simple Spans
- Table 22. Normalized Negative Moment Load Effects for Continuous Spans
- Table 23. Cost of One Time Bridge Rehabilitations, per Bridge
- Table 24. Projected Total Rehabilitation Costs for Interstate Bridges
- Table 25. Projected Total Rehabilitation Costs for Other Bridges on the NHS
- Table 26. Projected Δcosts for Interstate Bridges and Other Bridges on the NHS
- Table 27. Scenario 1-6 Summary
- Table 28. Table Bridge #1 Results
- Table 29. Bridge #2 Results
- Table 30. Bridge #3 Results
- Table 31. Bridge #4 Results
- Table 32. Deck Repair, Rehabilitation and Replacement Unit Costs

## List of Acronyms

Acronym | Definition |
---|---|

AASHO | American Association of State Highway Officials |

AASHTO | Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials |

ABrR | AASHTOWare Bridge Rating® |

ABS | anti-lock braking system |

AC | asphalt concrete |

ADT | average daily traffic |

AADTT | annual average daily truck traffic |

ADTT | average daily truck traffic |

AF | axle factors |

AGM | average gross mass |

ALF | axle load factors |

ARA | Applied Research Associates |

ASLRRA | American Short Line and Regional Railroad Association |

ASR | allowable stress rating |

BTS | Bureau of Transportation Statistics |

CAFT | constant-amplitude fatigue threshold |

CARB | California Air Resources Board |

CBO | Congressional Budget Office |

CMV | commercial motor vehicle |

CRCP | Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement |

CRF | Code of Federal Regulations |

CTSLW | Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits Study |

CTSW | Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight Limits |

CVSA | Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance |

DA | data agreement |

DOT | Department of Transportation |

EDFs | equivalent damage factors |

ESALs | equivalent single axle loads |

ESAR | equivalent single-axle radius |

ESWL | equivalent single-wheel load |

FAF | Freight Analysis Framework |

FEA | finite element analysis |

FHWA | Federal Highway Administration |

FMIS | Financial Management Information System |

FMVSS | Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard |

FRA | Federal Railroad Administration |

GCW | gross combined weight |

GEF | Group Equivalency Factor |

GVW | gross vehicle weight |

HCA | highway cost allocation |

HCAS | Federal Highway Cost Allocation Study |

HERS | Highway Economic Requirements Systems |

HMA | hot mix asphalt |

HPMS | Highway Performance Monitoring System |

HV | High-volume |

HIS | Interstate Highway System |

ITIC | Intermodal Transportation and Inventory Cost Model |

IRI | International Roughness Index |

IS | Interstate System |

ISTEA | Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act |

JPCP | jointed plain concrete pavement |

LCC | life cycle cost |

LCV | longer combination vehicles |

LEF | load equivalence factors |

LFR | load factor rating |

LRFD | load and resistance factor design |

LRFR | load resistance factor rating |

LTBP | Long-Term Bridge Performance Program |

LTL | less than truckload |

LTPP | Long-Term Pavement Performance |

LV | Low-volume |

MARAD | Maritime Administration |

MATLAB | Matrix Laboratory |

MCMIS | Motor Carrier Management Information System |

MDDs | multidepth deflectometers |

MEPDG | Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide |

MV | Medium-volume |

NAPCOM | National Pavement Cost Model |

NAS | National Academy of Sciences |

NATS | National Truck Stop Survey |

NBI | National Bridge Inventory |

NBMD | National Bridge Management Database |

NCHRP | National Cooperative Highway Research Program |

NDA | non-disclosure agreement |

NESCCAF | Northeast States Center for a Clean Air Future |

NHS | National Highway System |

NHTSA | National Highway Traffic Safety Administration |

NN | National Network |

NREL | National Renewable Energy Lab |

NSIs | normalized sensitivity indices |

OMB | Office of Management and Budget |

OGW | operating gross weight |

ORNL | Oak Ridge National Laboratories |

OOS | out-of-service |

OS/OW | oversize/overweight |

PBBT | Performance Based Brake Tests |

PAS | Pavement Analysis Software |

PBS | Performance-based standards |

PCC | Portland Cement Concrete |

PCE | passenger car equivalents |

PCU | passenger car units |

POG | Policy Oversight Group |

PSI | Pounds per square inch |

RC | reinforced concrete |

RF | rating factor |

SISSI | Superpave Instrumented Stress-Strain Investigation |

SPS | Special Pavement Sections |

STAA | Surface Transportation Authorization Act |

STB | Surface Transportation Board |

STCC | Standard Transportation Commodity Code |

SwRI | Southwest Research Institute |

TF | truck factor |

TMG | Traffic Monitoring Guidelines |

TOC | Technical Oversight Committee |

TRB | Transportation Research Board |

TSW | truck size and weight |

TTCGS | truck traffic classification groups |

USC | United States Code |

USDOT | US Department of Transportation |

VMT | vehicle miles traveled |

VIUS | Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey |

VSC | vehicle stability and control |

WHVC | World Harmonized Vehicle Cycle |

WIM | weigh-in-motion |

WIMPI | Weigh-in-Motion Pavement Investigation |