Text from 'Enforcement-Friendly Work Zones' PowerPoint Presentation
Making Work Zones Work Better Workshop
Texas Transportation Institute
Transportation Operations Group
Photo of an empty highway
- Enforcement areas often eliminated
- Legislation hampers enforcement efforts
What Can Be Done?
- Better DOT/enforcement coordination during planning/design/construction
- Better use of technology?
- Better enforcement-friendly designs
When Does Coordination Begin?
Diagram: Pie chart that displays the time at which DOT and enforcement coordination begins during planning, design and construction phases. 30% of the time it occurs during the planning review, 25% of the time it occurs during pre-construction meeting, 10% of the time it occurs once the project starts, and 35% of the time there is not coordination at all.
- NJ State Police Construction Unit
- OSHA-certified officers
- Traffic control plan training
- South Dakota DOTCOP
- Officers hired as DOT employees
- Special DOT vehicles
- Authority limited to work zones
- Operation Hardhat
- Florida Highway Patrol Officers
- Construction vehicles provide better vantage point
- Extensive publicity, advance warning to motorists
Photo of a worker with a hardhat on top of a construction vehicle
- Providing "real-time" information
- Portable CMS
- Permanent CMS
- Active warnings
- Use of Automated Speed Enforcement (ASE) Technology
Active Warnings (Tennessee)
- "Workers present" stipulation in double-fine laws
Automated Speed Enforcement
- High DOT/contractor/enforcement interest
- Requires legislative changes to transportation code
- Significant public/political opposition to ASE systems in the U.S.
Screen capture displaying ASE technology
- Use in a real-time, remote mode
- Move enforcement activity outside of work zone
- 85-88% of vehicles correctly identified 0.5 to 1.5 miles downstream
- Wireless transmission of up to two images per minute
Photo: Various pieces of ASE technology
Is It Practical?
- Legal/political challenges
- Continuous vehicle tracking
- Visual verification of a violation
- "Speed trap" perceptions
- Financial challenges (ASE $50,000+)
- Deployment/maintenance challenges
"Enforceable" Work Zone Designs
- Limit allowable work zone lengths
- Enforcement pull-out areas
Photo of a police officer ticketing an offending driver in a work zone
Enforcement Pull-Out Areas
Diagram: 2 lane highway with a Work Area in the left lane and an Enforcement Pull-Out Area on the right shoulder.
How far apart?
How best to incorporate?
Pull-Out Area Length
- AASHTO HOV Design Guide
- Typical driver deceleration/acceleration values
- Observed driver behavior after receiving a citation
Pull out areas should be ¼ mile long on high-speed facilities
Pull Out Area Spacing
Direct MOEs and costs difficult to assess
Not too closely spaced (constructability)
Not too widely spaced (enforceability)
Building a Consensus
Diagram: Trend diagram that shows how the Perceived Constructablility and Enforceability increases, for Contractors, as the Pull Out Area Spacing increases in miles. Conversely, the Perceived Constructablility and Enforceability decreases, for Law Enforcement, as the Pull Out Area Spacing increases in miles.
- Enforcement buy-in
- Appropriate sight distances
- Advance signing
- Look for ways to incorporate into standard construction phasing