Work Zone Road User Costs - Concepts and Applications
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Contact Information: WorkZoneFeedback@dot.gov
U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
Office of Operations (HOP)
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
Publication #: FHWA-HOP-12-005
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
1.2 Objectives and Scope
1.3 Report Organization and Use
Chapter 2. Work Zone Road User Costs
2.1 Definition of Work Zone Road User Cost
2.2 Travel Delay Costs
2.2.1 Delay Time
2.2.2 Monetary Value of Travel Time
2.3 Vehicle Operating Costs
2.3.1 Estimating VOC
2.3.2 VOC Models
2.3.3 Unit Cost Data Sources for VOC Estimation
2.4 Crash Costs
2.4.1 Work Zone Crash Rate
2.4.2 Crash Severity Rating
2.4.3 Monetary Value of Crashes
2.5 Emission Costs
2.5.1 Estimating Emissions Rates
2.5.2 Monetary Value of Emissions
2.6 Network/Corridor Level Impacts of Nearby Projects
2.7 Non-Monetary Quantitative and Qualitative Factors
2.7.2 Business and Local Community Impacts
2.8 Data Requirements for WZ RUC Mobility Analysis
2.8.1 Hourly Traffic Demand
2.8.2 Traffic composition
2.8.3 Work Zone Configuration
2.8.4 Work Zone Capacity
2.8.5 Travel Speed
2.8.6 Maintenance of Traffic Strategy
2.9 Tools for WZ RUC Computation
2.9.1 Work Zone Traffic Impact Analysis Tools
2.9.2 Economic Analysis Tools
Chapter 3. Application of WZ RUC during MOT Alternative Analysis.
3.2 Maintenance of Traffic Alternative Analysis
3.2.1 Preliminary Assessment of Work Zone Impacts (Step 1)
3.2.2 Identifying the Significance of Projects (Step 2)
3.2.3 Identifying the Need for MOT Alternative Analysis (Step 3)
3.2.4 Work Zone Performance Measures and Thresholds (Step 4)
3.2.5 Candidate Strategies for MOT Alternative Analysis (Step 5)
3.2.6 Detailed Assessment of Work Zone Impacts (Step 6)
3.2.7 Decision Analysis for MOT Strategy Selection (Step 7)
Chapter 4. Application of WZ RUC Analysis in Contracting/Project Delivery Methods
4.2 Schedule-Focused Alternative Contracting Strategies
4.2.1 Need for Schedule-focused Alternative Contracting Strategies
4.2.2 Overview of Schedule-focused Contracting Methods and Alternative Delivery Methods
4.3 Selecting a Contracting Strategy to Expedite Project Completion
4.3.1 Need for Project Acceleration
4.3.2 Selecting an Appropriate Schedule-Focused Alternative Strategy
4.4 Establish Key I/D Parameters
4.4.1 Establishing I/D Amount
4.4.2 Establishing Daily WZ RUC
4.4.3 Establishing Baseline and Accelerated Schedule
4.4.4 Establishing Contractor’s Costs of Acceleration
4.4.5 Establishing Time-Cost Tradeoff Point
4.4.6 Calculating Incentives/Disincentives – Discount Factor Approach
4.4.7 Calculating Incentives/Disincentives – Cost of Acceleration Approach
Chapter 5. Case Studies
5.1 Concrete Pavement Rehabilitation on Interstate-66, Fairfax County, Virginia
5.1.1 Project Description
5.1.2 Case Study Objectives
5.1.3 RUC Computation
5.1.4 Selection of Construction Technique
5.1.5 Selection of Contracting Strategy
5.1.6 Computing Lane Rental Fee
5.2 Improvements to the 24th Street –I-29/80 Interchange in Council Bluffs, Iowa
5.2.1 Project Description
5.2.2 Case Study Objectives
5.2.3 Construction Costs
5.2.4 Road User Costs
5.2.5 Benefit-Cost Analysis
5.3 Reconstruction of Eastern Avenue Bridge over Kenilworth Avenue in Washington, DC
5.3.1 Project Description
5.3.3 Need for MOT Alternative Analysis
5.3.4 Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis
Chapter 6. RUC Analysis Report Structure
6.2 Data Collection
6.3 Field Observations
6.4 Discussion on the Impacts of Work Zone
6.5 Detailed Narrative
6.6 Alternatives Analysis
Appendix A. Kepner-Tregoe Decision Analysis Worksheet for MOT Strategy Selection
List of Tables
Table 1. Ratio of personal and business travel.
Table 2. NHTS estimates of average vehicle occupancy factors of personal and business travel.
Table 3. OST guidelines for calculating value of personal travel time.
Table 4. OST guidelines for calculating value of business travel time.
Table 5. Hourly costs of time-related vehicle depreciation in 1995 dollars.
Table 6. Hourly costs of time-related vehicle depreciation in 2010 dollars.
Table 7. Percent of empty trucks.
Table 8. Average payload by distance traveled and truck type – national statistics.
Table 9. Average payload by distance traveled and truck type by State.
Table 10. Hourly cost of freight inventory by distance traveled and truck type – national averages in 2010 dollars.
Table 11. Roadway factors affecting vehicle operating costs.
Table 12. Added time and vehicle running cost/1,000 stops and idling cost in 2010 dollars.
Table 13. TRDF estimates of VOC consumption during idling.
Table 14. Sample HERS-ST estimates of constant speed VOC in 2010 dollars.
Table 15. Sample HERS-ST estimates of speed variability VOC in 2010 dollars.
Table 16. AAA estimates of VOC for passenger cars in 2010 dollars (cents/vehicle mile).
Table 17. ATRI estimates of VOC for trucks in 2008 dollars.
Table 18. Barnes and Langworthy estimates of VOC in 2003 dollars
Table 19. Average VOC in 2005 dollars.
Table 20. HERS-ST unit costs of VOC resource components in 2004 dollars.
Table 21. Price adjustments for VOC components.
Table 22. 2004 to 2010 price adjustment factors for VOC components.
Table 23. HERS-ST unit costs of VOC resource components in 2010 dollars.
Table 24. Typical work zone crash modification factors for temporary lane closure on freeways.
Table 25. Average crash rates at Interstate work zones in Indiana.
Table 26. Work zone crash rates in Ohio.
Table 27. KABCO injury scale.
Table 28. Abbreviated injury scale.
Table 29. Sample FHWA crash cost estimates in 2001 dollars.
Table 30. Factors affecting vehicular emissions.
Table 31. EMFAC emissions factors used in Cal-B/C program – model year 2003.
Table 32. Caltrans estimates of health cost of transportation emissions in 2010 dollars.
Table 33. HERS-ST estimates of air pollutant damage costs in 2000 dollars.
Table 34. Sample hourly traffic distribution factors.
Table 35. Work zone management strategies by category – temporary traffic control.
Table 36. Work zone management strategies by category – transportation operations.
Table 37. Work zone management strategies by category – public information.
Table 38. Traffic analysis tools used by State DOTs.
Table 39. Classification of project types based on work zone impacts.
Table 40. North Carolina DOT criteria for determining level of project significance.
Table 41. Performance measures for MOT alternative analysis.
Table 42. Performance thresholds used by various agencies.
Table 43. Candidate strategies for MOT alternative analysis.
Table 44. Advantages and disadvantages of incentives/disincentives.
Table 45. Advantages and disadvantages of A+B bidding.
Table 46. Advantages and disadvantages of lane rental.
Table 47. Advantages and disadvantages of no-excuse incentives.
Table 48. Advantages and disadvantages of design-build project delivery.
Table 49. Advantages and disadvantages of CMGC.
Table 50. Questions on identifying the need for accelerating a project schedule.
Table 51. Project delivery method selection matrix.
Table 52. Schedule-focused contracting strategy selection matrix.
Table 53. Common sources of unit cost data.
Table 54. Empirical factors for estimating profit margin.
Table 55. Typical cost breakdown by project type.
Table 56. Weekday hourly traffic distribution over a 24-hour period for I-66 westbound lanes.
Table 57. Weekend hourly traffic distribution over a 24-hour period for I-66 westbound lanes.
Table 58. VDOT’s accident records along I-66 project site.
Table 59. I-66 project: travel time statistics.
Table 60. Lane closure restrictions for mainline I-66.
Table 61. Lane closure restrictions for ramp from I-66 westbound to US 50 westbound.
Table 62. I-66 project user fees for lane closures.
Table 63. I-66 project: unit cost data requirements for WZ RUC computation.
Table 64. I-66 mainline traffic impacts (two of four lanes closed).
Table 65. I-66 mainline traffic impacts (three of four lanes closed).
Table 66. I-66 project: evaluating the need for a schedule-focused contracting strategy.
Table 67. I-66 mainline: RealCost WZ RUC estimates for different lane closure timings (two of four lanes closed).
Table 68. I-66 mainline: RealCost WZ RUC estimates for different lane closure timings (three of four lanes closed).
Table 69. I-66 project: comparison of VDOT and RealCost-based lane rental fees.
Table 70. I-66 project: comparison of lane rental fees at different discount factors
Table 71. 24th street reconstruction project: per vehicle travel time and delay estimates.
Table 72. 24th street reconstruction project: agency costs.
Table 73. 24th street reconstruction project: work zone exposure for baseline and pre-cast options.
Table 74. 24th street reconstruction project: unit cost data for crashes.
Table 75. 24th street reconstruction project: crash costs for the baseline option.
Table 76. 24th street reconstruction project: crash costs for the pre-cast option.
Table 77. Eastern Avenue project: weighting WANT objectives.
Table 78. Eastern Avenue project: summary of LCAP analysis.
Table 79. Eastern Avenue project: evaluation against MUST objectives.
Table 80. Eastern Avenue project: evaluation against WANT objectives.
Table 81. Eastern Avenue project: weighted scores.
Table 82. Eastern Avenue project: analyzing adverse consequences.
Table 83. Eastern Avenue project: selection of a preferred alternative.
List of Figures
Figure 1. Road user cost components.
Figure 2. Schematic illustrating the components of travel delay costs.
Figure 3. Schematic illustrating the components of VOC.
Figure 4. Sample screenshot from the New Jersey DOT spreadsheet tool.
Figure 5. Sample screenshot from the Colorado WZ RUC program.
Figure 6. Sample screenshot from the Maryland
Figure 7. Sample screenshot from the Michigan CO3 spreadsheet.
Figure 8. Sample screenshot showing lane closure analysis using CA4PRS.
Figure 9.a Screenshot showing the WZ RUC analysis in RealCost version 2.5 – An example of work zone traffic analysis illustrating lane closure timings and queuing conditions.
Figure 9.b Screenshot showing the WZ RUC analysis in RealCost version 2.5 – An example showing computed RUC components for a typical work zone project.
Figure 10. Screenshot showing the work zone analysis functionalities of MicroBENCOST.
Figure 11. Screenshot showing the RUC analysis functionalities of BCA.Net.
Figure 12. Maryland SHA’s lane closure process for arterials.
Figure 13. Illustration of relationships among factors.
Figure 14. Sample flow chart of the I/D contracting implementation process.
Figure 15. Relationship between project cost and duration.
Figure 16. Relationship among the level of acceleration, acceleration costs, and time savings.
Figure 17. Project location on I-66 in Fairfax County, Virginia.
Figure 18. Number of lanes open during peak and non-peak hours on I-66 mainline.
Figure 19. Hourly traffic distribution on I-66 westbound lanes.
Figure 20. Construction staging on I-66 mainline.
Figure 21. VDOT designated detour for I-66 ramp closure.
Figure 22. General project location of 24th Street Reconstruction Project.
Figure 23. Traffic volume at the 24th Street Interchange.
Figure 24. Location of Eastern Avenue project.
Figure 25. Preconstruction aerial photograph of Eastern Avenue bridge.
Figure 26. Hourly traffic volumes on Kenilworth Avenue.
Figure 27. Eastern Avenue project: travel delay estimates for Option 1.
Figure 28. Eastern Avenue project: travel delay estimates for Option 2.
Figure 29. Eastern Avenue project: travel delay estimates for Option 3.
Figure 30. Eastern Avenue project: queue length estimates for Option 1.
Figure 31. Eastern Avenue project: queue length estimates for Option 2.
Figure 32. Eastern Avenue project: queue length estimates for Option 3.