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Appendix D: Glossary

Selected Glossary of Regional Transportation Planning Terms, including Management & Operations.

Administrative modification. A minor revision to a long-range statewide or metropolitan transportation plan, transportation improvement program (TIP), or statewide transportation improvement program (STIP) that includes minor changes to project/project phase costs, minor changes to funding sources of previously-included projects, and minor changes to project/project phase initiation dates.

An administrative modification is a revision that does not require public review and comment, redemonstration of fiscal constraint, or a conformity determination (in nonattainment and maintenance areas).

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Amendment [to plan or STIP/TIP]. A revision to a long-range statewide or metropolitan transportation plan, TIP, or STIP that involves a major change to a project included in a metropolitan transportation plan, TIP, or STIP, including the addition or deletion of a project or a major change in project cost, project/project phase initiation dates, or a major change in design concept or design scope (e.g., changing project termini or the number of through traffic lanes).

Changes to projects that are included only for illustrative purposes do not require an amendment. An amendment is a revision that requires public review and comment, redemonstration of fiscal constraint, or a conformity determination (for metropolitan transportation plans and TIPs involving "non-exempt" projects in nonattainment and maintenance areas). In the context of a long-range statewide transportation plan, an amendment is a revision approved by the State in accordance with its public involvement process.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Annual listing of obligated projects. A required listing of all projects and strategies listed in the transportation improvement program (TIP) for which Federal funds were obligated during the immediately preceding program year.

The development of the annual listing "shall be a cooperative effort of the State, transit operator, and MPO." SAFETEA-LU gave special emphasis to listing two project types - investments in pedestrian walkways and bicycle transportation facilities, to ensure they are not overlooked. The listing shall be consistent with the funding categories identified in each metropolitan transportation improvement program (TIP).

[SAFETEA-LU, 23 U.S.C. 134(j)(7)(B), 23 U.S.C. 135(g)(4)(B), 49 U.S.C. 5303(j)(7)(B), and 49 U.S.C. 5304(g)(4)(B) as described in FTA/FHWA Preliminary Guidance on Annual Listing of Obligated Projects, February 28, 2006, https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/HEP/annuallistatt.htm.]

Attainment area. Any geographic area in which levels of a given criteria air pollutant (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, PM10, PM2.5, and nitrogen dioxide) meet the health-based National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for that pollutant.

An area may be an attainment area for one pollutant and a nonattainment area for others. A "maintenance area" (see definition below) is not considered an attainment area for transportation planning purposes.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Collaboration. Any cooperative effort between and among governmental entities (as well as with private partners) through which the partners work together to achieve common goals.

Such collaboration can range from very informal, ad hoc activities to more planned, organized and formalized ways of working together. The collaborative parties work toward mutual advantage and common goals. They share a sense of public purpose, leverage resources to yield improved outcomes, and bridge traditional geographic, institutional, and functional boundaries. Collaboration leads to improved understanding of the ways various levels of government interact and carry out their roles and responsibilities. The resulting effect frequently streamlines operations and enhances quality of life for residents of the localities involved.

[Public Technology, Inc., January 2003, Crossing Boundaries - On the Road to Public-Private Partnerships. Note: Inserted phrase "through which the partners work together to achieve common goals" for clarity.]

Conformity. A Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7506(c)) requirement that ensures that Federal funding and approval are given to transportation plans, programs and projects that are consistent with the air quality goals established by a State Implementation Plan (SIP).

Conformity, to the purpose of the SIP, means that transportation activities will not cause new air quality violations, worsen existing violations, or delay timely attainment of the NAAQS. The transportation conformity rule (40 CFR part 93) sets forth policy, criteria, and procedures for demonstrating and assuring conformity of transportation activities.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Congestion management process (CMP). A systematic approach to addressing congestion through effective management and operation.

A systematic approach required in transportation management areas (TMAs) that provides for effective management and operation, based on a cooperatively developed and implemented metropolitan-wide strategy, of new and existing transportation facilities eligible for funding under title 23 U.S.C., and title 49 U.S.C., through the use of operational management strategies.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Congestion management system (CMS). A systematic and regionally accepted approach for managing congestion that provides accurate, up-to-date information on transportation system operations and performance and assesses alternative strategies for congestion management that meet State and local needs.

[23 CFR 500.109.]

Through SAFETEA-LU, the congestion management system has been replaced by the congestion management process. According to SAFETEA-LU, under certain conditions the congestion management system may constitute the congestion management process.

[23 U.S.C. 135 (i).]

Consideration. One or more parties takes into account the opinions, action, and relevant information from other parties in making a decision or determining a course of action.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Consultation. One or more parties confer with other identified parties in accordance with an established process and, prior to taking action(s), consider the views of the other parties and periodically inform them about action(s) taken.

This definition does not apply to the "consultation" performed by the States and the MPOs in comparing the long-range statewide transportation plan and the metropolitan transportation plan, respectively, to State and Tribal conservation plans or maps or inventories of natural or historic resources (see 450.214(i) and 450.322(g)(1) and (g)(2)).

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Cooperation. The parties involved in carrying out the transportation planning and programming processes work together to achieve a common goal or objective.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Coordinated public transit-human services transportation plan. Locally developed, coordinated transportation plan that identifies the transportation needs of individuals with disabilities, older adults, and people with low incomes, provides strategies for meeting those local needs, and prioritizes transportation services for funding and implementation.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Proposed projects under three separate FTA formula funding programs (Special Needs of Elderly Individuals and Individuals with Disabilities, Job Access and Reverse Commute, and New Freedom) must be derived from a locally developed public transit-human services transportation plan. This plan must be developed through a process that includes representatives of public, private, and non-profit transportation and human services providers, as well as the public. An areawide solicitation for applications for grants under the latter two programs above shall be made in cooperation with the appropriate MPO.

[SAFETEA-LU, Sections 3012, 3018, and 3019.]

Coordination. Cooperative development of plans, programs, and schedules among agencies and entities with legal standing and adjustment of such plans, programs, and schedules to achieve general consistency, as appropriate.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Financially constrained or fiscal constraint. The metropolitan transportation plan, TIP, and STIP includes sufficient financial information for demonstrating that projects in the metropolitan transportation plan, TIP, and STIP can be implemented using committed, available, or reasonably available revenue sources, with reasonable assurance that the federally supported transportation system is being adequately operated and maintained.

For the TIP and the STIP, financial constraint/fiscal constraint applies to each program year. Additionally, projects in air quality nonattainment and maintenance areas can be included in the first two years of the TIP and STIP only if funds are "available" or "committed."

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Goals. Generalized statements that broadly relate the physical environment to values.

[FHWA Transportation Planning Capacity Building Glossary. http://www.planning.dot.gov/glossary.asp.]

Intelligent transportation system (ITS). Electronics, communications, and information processing used singly or integrated to improve the efficiency or safety of surface transportation.

[U.S. Department of Transportation, Regional ITS Architecture Guidance - Developing, Using, and Maintaining an ITS Architecture for Your Region, Version 2.0, July 6, 2006.]

Intermodal. The ability to connect, and the connections between, modes of transportation.

[http://www.planning.dot.gov/glossary.asp.]

ITS architecture. Defines a framework within which interrelated systems can be built that work together to deliver transportation services.

An ITS architecture defines a framework within which interrelated systems can be built that work together to deliver transportation services. It defines how systems functionally operate and the interconnection of information exchanges that must take place between these systems to accomplish transportation services.

[U.S. Department of Transportation, Regional ITS Architecture Guidance - Developing, Using, and Maintaining an ITS Architecture for Your Region, Version 2.0, July 6, 2006. Combines definitions of "architecture" and "ITS architecture."]

Long-range transportation plan (LRTP)26. A document resulting from regional or statewide collaboration and consensus on a region or state's transportation system, and serving as the defining vision for the region's or state's transportation systems and services.

A document resulting from regional or statewide collaboration and consensus on a region or state's transportation system, and serving as the defining vision for the region's or state's transportation systems and services. In metropolitan areas, the plan indicates all of the transportation improvements scheduled for funding over the next 20 years. It is fiscally constrained, i.e., a given program or project can reasonably expect to receive funding within the time allotted for its implementation.

[FHWA Transportation Planning Capacity Building Glossary. http://www.planning.dot.gov/glossary.asp.]

Maintenance. In general, the preservation (scheduled and corrective) of infrastructure.

The preservation of the entire highway/transit line, including surface, shoulders, roadsides, structures, and such traffic-control devices as are necessary for safe and efficient utilization of the highway/transit line.

[23 U.S.C. 101(a). Added transit line to the definition.]

Maintenance area. Any geographic region of the United States that the EPA previously designated as a nonattainment area for one or more pollutants pursuant to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, and subsequently redesignated as an attainment area subject to the requirement to develop a maintenance plan under section 175A of the Clean Air Act, as amended.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Management and operations (M&O). See transportation systems management and operations.

Management system. A systematic process, designed to assist decisionmakers in selecting cost effective strategies/actions to improve the efficiency or safety of, and protect the investment in the nation's infrastructure.

A management system can include: Identification of performance measures; data collection and analysis; determination of needs; evaluation and selection of appropriate strategies/actions to address the needs; and evaluation of the effectiveness of the implemented strategies/actions.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Metropolitan planning area. The geographic area in which the metropolitan transportation planning process required by 23 U.S.C. 134 and Section 8 of the Federal Transit Act (49 U.S.C. app. 1607) must be carried out.

[FHWA Transportation Planning Capacity Building Glossary. http://www.planning.dot.gov/glossary.asp.]

Metropolitan planning organization (MPO). The policy board of an organization created and designated to carry out the metropolitan transportation planning process.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Regional planning body, required in urbanized areas with a population over 50,000, and designated by local officials and the governor of the state. Responsible, in cooperation with the state and other transportation providers, for carrying out the metropolitan transportation planning requirements of federal highway and transit legislation. Formed in cooperation with the state, develops transportation plans and programs for the metropolitan area. For each urbanized area, a Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO) must be designated by agreement between the governor and local units of government representing 75% of the affected population (in the metropolitan area), including the central city or cities as defined by the Bureau of Census, or in accordance with procedures established by applicable state or local law.

[23 U.S.C. 134(b)(1) and Federal Transit Act of 1991 Sec. 8(b)(1).]

Metropolitan transportation plan (MTP). The official multimodal transportation plan addressing no less than a 20-year planning horizon that is developed, adopted, and updated by the MPO through the metropolitan transportation planning process.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Multimodal. The availability of transportation options using different modes within a system or corridor.

[FHWA Transportation Planning Capacity Building Glossary. http://www.planning.dot.gov/glossary.asp.]

National ITS Architecture (also "national architecture"). A common framework for ITS interoperability.

The term "national architecture" means the common framework for interoperability that defines—(A) the functions associated with intelligent transportation system user services; (B) the physical entities or subsystems within which the functions reside; (C) the data interfaces and information flows between physical subsystems; and (D) the communications requirements associated with the information flows.

[SAFETEA-LU Section 5310.]

The National ITS Architecture is maintained by the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) and is available on the DOT web site at http://www.its.dot.gov.

Nonattainment area. Any geographic region of the United States that has been designated by the EPA as a nonattainment area under Section 107 of the Clean Air Act for any pollutants for which a National Ambient Air Quality Standard exists.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Areas of the country where air pollution levels persistently exceed the National Ambient Air Quality Standards may be designated nonattainment. EPA uses six criteria pollutants [ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and lead] as indicators of air quality, and has established for each of them a maximum concentration above which adverse effects on human health may occur. These threshold concentrations are called National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS).

[The Environmental Protection Agency, The Green Book, http://www.epa.gov/air/oaqps/greenbk/. March 15, 2006. Names of the pollutants added to definition.]

Objectives. Specific, measurable statements related to the attainment of goals.

[FHWA Transportation Planning Capacity Building Glossary. http://www.planning.dot.gov/glossary.asp.]

Obligated projects. Strategies and projects funded under title 23 U.S.C. and title 49 U.S.C. Chapter 53 for which the supporting Federal funds were authorized and committed by the State or designated recipient in the preceding program year, and authorized by FHWA or awarded as a grant by the FTA.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Operational and management strategies. Actions and strategies aimed at improving the performance of existing and planned transportation facilities to relieve congestion and maximizing the safety and mobility of people and goods.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Operational concept [in ITS architecture]. An operational concept identifies the roles and responsibilities of participating agencies and stakeholders.

It defines the institutional and technical vision for the region and describes how the system will work at very high-level, frequently using operational scenarios as a basis.

[U.S. Department of Transportation, Regional ITS Architecture Guidance - Developing, Using, and Maintaining an ITS Architecture for Your Region, Version 2.0, July 6, 2006.]

Operations. See Transportation Systems Management and Operations.

Operations and maintenance (O&M). The range of activities and services provided by a transportation agency and the upkeep and preservation of the existing system.

Specifically, operations includes the range of activities/services provided by transportation system agencies or operators (routine traffic and transit operations, response to incidents/accidents, special events management, work zone traffic management, etc; see "Operations"). Maintenance relates to the upkeep and preservation of the existing system (road, rail and signal repair, right-of-way upkeep, etc; see "Maintenance").

Operations objective. The operations objective expresses the desired outcome that can be achieved by the partners through operations strategies.

In the context of an RCTO, it is multi-jurisdictional in nature. It should be specific, measurable, agreed upon by the partners, realistic, and time-bound.

[U.S. Department of Transportation, Regional Concept for Transportation Operations: A Management Tool for Effective Collaboration, Draft Version, January 5, 2007.]

Participation plan. MPOs must develop and utilize a "Participation Plan" that provides reasonable opportunities for interested parties to comment on the content of the metropolitan transportation plan and metropolitan TIP. This "Participation Plan" must be developed "in consultation with all interested parties."

[23 U.S.C. 134(j)(5)(B) and 49 U.S.C. 5303(I)(5)(B).]

Performance measurement. A process of assessing progress toward achieving predetermined goals.

Performance measurement is a process of assessing progress toward achieving predetermined goals, including information on the efficiency with which resources are transformed into goods and services, the quality of those outputs (how well they are delivered to clients and the extent to which clients are satisfied) and outcomes (the results of a program activity compared to its intended purpose), and the effectiveness of government operations in terms of their specific contribution to program objectives.

[Transportation Research Board, Performance Measures of Operational Effectiveness for Highway Segments and Systems - A Synthesis of Highway Practice, NCHRP Synthesis 311; Washington, DC; 2003.]

Performance measures. Indicators of transportation system outcomes with regard to such things as average speed, reliability of travel, and accident rates.

Used as feedback in the decisionmaking process.

[FHWA Transportation Planning Capacity Building Glossary. http://www.planning.dot.gov/glossary.asp. Substituted the word "outcomes" for "performing."]

Planning factors. A set of broad objectives defined in Federal legislation to be considered in both the metropolitan and statewide planning process.

Both SAFETEA-LU and its predecessors, TEA-21 and ISTEA, identify specific factors that must be considered in the planning process. TEA-21 consolidated what were previously 16 metropolitan and 23 statewide planning "factors" into seven broad "areas" to be considered in the planning process, both at the metropolitan and statewide level. SAFETEA-LU increased the number of planning factors to eight by creating separate planning factors for safety and security. SAFETEA-LU added language to emphasize the correspondence between transportation improvements and economic development and growth plans.

Below are the planning factors for the metropolitan planning process. SAFETEA-LU specifies identical factors for the stateside planning process with the exception that the emphasis is on the state instead of the metropolitan area.

SAFETEA-LU states that in general the metropolitan planning process for a metropolitan planning area under this section shall provide for consideration of projects and strategies that will-

A. Support the economic vitality of the metropolitan area, especially by enabling global competitiveness, productivity, and efficiency;
B. Increase the safety of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users;
C. Increase the security of the transportation system for motorized and nonmotorized users;
D. Increase the accessibility and mobility of people and for freight;
E. Protect and enhance the environment, promote energy conservation, improve the quality of life, and promote consistency between transportation improvements and State and local planned growth and economic development patterns;
F. Enhance the integration and connectivity of the transportation system, across and between modes, for people and freight;
G. Promote efficient system management and operation; and
H. Emphasize the preservation of the existing transportation system.

[SAFETEA-LU Section 6001(a) and 23 U.S.C. 134 (h) (1) and 49 U.S.C. 5303(h)(1)(E).]

Planning for operations. Coordination of activities among transportation planners and managers with responsibility for day-to-day transportation operations.

These activities when conducted in harmony enhance the planning process and result in improved system performance-a more flexible, reliable, and efficient system- cheaper, faster, better.

FHWA, Planning for Operations Fact Sheet, January 2006.

Programming. Prioritizing proposed projects and matching those projects with available funds to accomplish agreed upon, stated needs.

[FHWA Transportation Planning Capacity Building Glossary. http://www.planning.dot.gov/glossary.asp.]

Project selection. The procedures followed by MPOs, States, and public transportation operators to advance projects from the first four years of an approved TIP and/or STIP to implementation, in accordance with agreed upon procedures.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

1Region. A metropolitan or other multi-jurisdictional area.

2Region. The geographical area that identifies the boundaries of the regional ITS architecture and is defined by and based on the needs of the participating agencies and other stakeholders.

In metropolitan areas, a region should be no less than the boundaries of the metropolitan planning area.

[23 CFR Part 940.3.]

Regional concept for transportation operations. A management tool to assist in planning and implementing management and operations strategies in a collaborative and sustained manner.

[FHWA, Draft Regional Concept for Transportation Operations Primer, December 18, 2006.]

A Regional Concept for Transportation Operations (RCTO) serves as a guide for partners in thinking through what they want to achieve in the next 3 to 5 years and how they are going to get there. The primary components of an RCTO are a shared objective for transportation operations and a description of what is needed to achieve that objective.

[FHWA, Fact Sheet: A Regional Concept for Transportation Operations - At a Glance, August 2, 2006.]

Regional ITS architecture. A regional framework for ensuring institutional agreement and technical integration for the implementation of ITS projects or groups of projects.

[23 CFR 450.104, 23 CFR Part 940.3.]

The regional ITS architecture shall include, at a minimum, the following: (1) A description of the region; (2) Identification of participating agencies and other stakeholders; (3) An operational concept that identifies the roles and responsibilities of participating agencies and stakeholders in the operation and implementation of the systems included in the regional ITS architecture; (4) Any agreements (existing or new) required for operations, including at a minimum those affecting ITS project interoperability, utilization of ITS related standards, and the operation of the projects identified in the regional ITS architecture; (5) System functional requirements; (6) Interface requirements and information exchanges with planned and existing systems and subsystems (for example, subsystems and architecture flows as defined in the National ITS Architecture); (7) Identification of ITS standards supporting regional and national interoperability; and (8) The sequence of projects required for implementation.

[23 CFR 940.9.]

Development of the regional ITS architecture should be consistent with the transportation planning process for Statewide and Metropolitan Transportation Planning.

[23 CFP 940.5.]

Regional planning organization (RPO). An organization that performs planning for multi-jurisdictional areas. MPOs, regional councils, economic development associations, rural transportation associations are examples of RPOs.

[FHWA Transportation Planning Capacity Building Glossary. http://www.planning.dot.gov/glossary.asp.]

Regional transportation operations collaboration and coordination. Working together in a sustained manner to address regional transportation operations.

Regional transportation operations collaboration and coordination is working together in a sustained manner to address regional transportation operations. Regional operations collaboration and coordination is a deliberate, continuous, and sustained activity that takes place when transportation agency managers and officials responsible for day-to-day operations work together at a regional level to solve operational problems, improve system performance, and communicate better with one another.

[FHWA, Regional Transportation Operations Collaboration and Coordination: A Primer for Working Together to Improve Transportation Safety, Reliability, and Security, 2003.]

Regionally significant project. A transportation project that is on a facility which serves regional transportation needs and would normally be included in the modeling of the metropolitan area's transportation network.

A transportation project (other than projects that may be grouped in the TIP and/or STIP or exempt projects as defined in EPA's transportation conformity regulation (40 CFR part 93)) that is on a facility which serves regional transportation needs (such as access to and from the area outside the region; major activity centers in the region; major planned developments such as new retail malls, sports complexes, or employment centers; or transportation terminals) and would normally be included in the modeling of the metropolitan area's transportation network. At a minimum, this includes all principal arterial highways and all fixed guideway transit facilities that offer a significant alternative to regional highway travel.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Revision. A change to a long-range statewide or metropolitan transportation plan, TIP or STIP that occurs between scheduled periodic updates.

Note also: A major revision is an "amendment," while a minor revision is an "administrative modification."

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Stakeholder. Person or group affected by a transportation plan, program or project. Person or group believing that they are affected by a transportation plan, program or project. Residents of affected geographical areas.

[FHWA Transportation Planning Capacity Building Glossary. http://www.planning.dot.gov/glossary.asp.]

State transportation improvement program (STIP). A statewide prioritized listing/program of transportation projects covering a period of four years.

Must be consistent with the long-range statewide transportation plan, MPO plans, and TIPs; required for projects to be eligible for funding under title 23 U.S.C. and title 49 U.S.C. Chapter 53.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Strategic highway safety plan (SHSP). A statewide-coordinated safety plan that provides a comprehensive framework, and specific goals and objectives, for reducing highway fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads. OR A plan developed by the State DOT in accordance with U.S.C. 148(a)(6).

[FHWA, Strategic Highway Safety Plans: A Champion's Guide To Saving Lives, Guidance to Supplement SAFETEA-LU Requirements, April 5, 2006, http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/safetealu/toc/shsppreview.cfm.]

Transportation demand management (TDM). Programs designed to reduce demand for transportation through various means, such as the use of transit and of alternative work hours.

[FHWA Transportation Planning Capacity Building Glossary. http://www.planning.dot.gov/glossary.asp.]

Transportation improvement program (TIP). A prioritized listing/program of transportation projects covering a period of four years that is developed and formally adopted by an MPO as part of the metropolitan transportation planning process.

Must be consistent with the metropolitan transportation plan; required for projects to be eligible for funding under title 23 U.S.C.and title 49 U.S.C. Chapter 53.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Transportation management area (TMA). An urbanized area with a population over 200,000, as defined by the Bureau of Census and designated by the Secretary of Transportation, or any additional area where TMA designation is requested by the Governor and the MPO and designated by the Secretary of Transportation.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Transportation planning. A continuing, comprehensive, and cooperative process to encourage and promote the development of a multimodal transportation system to ensure safe and efficient movement of people and goods while balancing environmental and community needs.

Statewide and metropolitan transportation planning processes are governed by Federal law and applicable state and local laws. [Based on language found in 23 U.S.C. Sections 134 and 135.]

Transportation systems management and operations (TSM&O). An integrated program to optimize the performance of existing infrastructure through the implementation of systems, services, and projects designed to preserve capacity and improve security, safety, and reliability of the transportation system.

The term includes (i) regional operations collaboration and coordination activities between transportation and public safety agencies; and (ii) improvements to the transportation system such as traffic detection and surveillance, arterial management, freeway management, demand management, work zone management, emergency management, electronic toll collection, automated enforcement, traffic incident management, roadway weather management, traveler information services, commercial vehicle operations, traffic control, freight management, and coordination of highway, rail, transit, bicycle, and pedestrian operations.

[H.R. 5689, proposed technical corrections to SAFETEA-LU.]

Unified planning work program (UPWP). A statement of work identifying the planning priorities and activities to be carried out within a metropolitan planning area.

At a minimum, the UPWP includes a description of the planning work and resulting products, who will perform the work, time frames for completing the work, the cost of the work, and the source(s) of funds.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Update. Making current a long-range statewide transportation plan, MPO, TIP, or STIP through a comprehensive review.

Updates require public review and comment, a 20-year horizon year for the MTPs and long-range statewide transportation plans, a four-year program period for TIPs and STIPs, demonstration of fiscal constraint (except for long-range statewide transportation plans), and a conformity determination (for MTPs and TIPs in nonattainment and maintenance areas.

[23 CFR 450.104.]

Vision. An agreed statement of the overall aims of a transportation plan.

A vision is an agreed statement of the overall aims of a transportation plan. In the context of regional transportation, a vision is the regionally-agreed statement of the overall aims of the regional transportation plan; describes the target end-state. Typically, a regional transportation vision will drive its goals (policy statements - the ends toward which effort is directed), objectives (measurable results), and strategies (ways/means to achieve objectives). Note also that the definition of Long Range Transportation Plan reflects that the LRTP serves "as the defining vision . . ."

[While no specific FHWA source has been identified for this definition, it is useful to have a common understanding of the term "vision" such as offered here. For further perspective, below is a selected regional comment on vision.]

"The vision statement reflects what the organization is striving for at the regional (external) and organizational (internal) levels. Everything we do at MPC should meet our vision for the future."

[Metropolitan Planning Council [Chicago] Board of Governors 2005-2008 Strategic Plan - http://www.metroplanning.org/about/strategicplan.asp.]

Visualization techniques. Methods used to present information in a format that will promote the understanding of transportation plans and programs during the development process.

Methods used by States and MPOs in the development of transportation plans and programs with the public, elected and appointed officials, and other stakeholders in a clear and easily accessible format such as maps, pictures, and/or displays, to promote improved understanding of existing or proposed transportation plans and programs.

[23 CFR 450.104.]


26 Sometimes referred to as Long Range Plan (LRP), Constrained Long Range Plan (CLRP), or Regional Transportation Plan. Historically, many MPOs and States have used the "long range" terminology; however, the current regulation uses the term "metropolitan transportation planning" and "metropolitan transportation plans".


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