Who should read this primer?
The intended audience for this primer includes:
The greatest concentration of a transportation system's typical operational challenges—congestion, accidents, lack of reliability, and pollution—have a propensity for occurring along critical corridors that link residential areas, business districts, and entertainment and shopping venues. Integrated corridor management (ICM), defined as a set of policies and procedures for coordinating transportation operations in order to improve travel management, is a key strategy for addressing these challenges. ICM enables infrastructure operators to optimize their available space by directing travelers to underused or more reliable capacity in a transportation corridor. These strategies may include encouraging shifts in users' trip departure times, routes, or modal choices. Other strategies may involve dynamically adjusting capacity by changing metering rates at entrance ramps or adjusting signal timings to accommodate fluctuating demand. In an ICM corridor, travelers can even shift their mode of travel during their trip in response to changing conditions.
The practice of ICM is about more than operations; it involves constant analysis, modeling, and even simulation and testing in an effort to stay abreast of the latest means and methods to improve performance. Today, this includes connected and automated vehicles (CAV). CAV promises exciting ways for the ICM community to improve the safety, mobility, environmental performance, and organizational efficiency on major travel corridors. This document provides a basic background on CAV to the ICM community and provides guidance about the institutional, operational, and technical integration of CAV into the ICM paradigm.
The vision of ICM is that transportation networks will realize significant improvements in the efficient movement of people and goods through institutional collaboration and aggressive, proactive integration of existing infrastructure along major corridors. Through an ICM approach, transportation professionals manage the corridor as a multimodal system and make operational decisions for the benefit of the corridor as a whole.1 Just as ICM represented an innovative approach to transportation when it began in 2006, CAV similarly offers unprecedented opportunities to integrate new thinking, new methods, and new technologies into ICM. This primer examines the impacts of CAV on the transportation system and suggests ways this technology can be incorporated into an ICM approach. It explores opportunities to effectively integrate CAV institutionally, operationally, and technically, both by leveraging existing platforms and considering options for coordination between ICM and CAV stakeholders. Lastly, although integrating CAV and ICM holds great promise for more efficient operations on both ends, it is not without challenges. This document explores these challenges and how they can be overcome.
The Integrated Corridor Management Research Initiative
The USDOT formally began its ICM research initiative in 2006 to explore and develop ICM concepts and approaches and to advance the deployment of ICM systems throughout the country. Initially, eight pioneer sites were selected to develop concepts of operations (ConOps) and system requirements for ICM on a congested corridor in their region. Three of these sites went on to conduct analysis, modeling, and simulation (AMS) for potential ICM response strategies on their corridor. In the final stage, two sites – the US-75 Corridor in Dallas, Texas, and the Interstate-15 (I-15) corridor in San Diego, California – were selected to design, deploy, and demonstrate their ICM systems.
FHWA ICM Program Information:
The Dallas and San Diego demonstrations "went live" in the Spring of 2013. Each demonstration has two phases: 1) design and deployment, and 2) operations and maintenance. Both sites chose to develop a decision support system (DSS) as a technical tool to facilitate the application of institutional agreements and operational approaches that corridor stakeholders agreed to over a rigorous planning and design process.
In 2015, 13 other regional corridors were awarded grants to develop pre-implementation ICM foundations. Although the demonstration sites provide valuable insights into the necessary components of building an ICM system, they do not represent the only way to implement ICM. There is no "one-size-fits-all" approach to ICM, since the circumstances of a particular corridor will vary based on traffic patterns, agency dynamics, available assets, and a host of other factors. Thus, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is committed to raising awareness for ICM through their knowledge and technology transfer program, which advances the implementation and integration of ICM with other concepts.
Connected and Automated Vehicles
Connected and Automated Vehicle Applications
Forms of connected and automated vehicles are here now: automated driving features are seen in entry-level vehicles, and Google's Self Driving Car Project has logged 1.5 million miles. But to some degree, the CAV arrived when General Motors first offered OnStar in its 1997 Cadillac branded-vehicles. CAV was also evident in 2008, the first time drivers used smartphones to download Waze, a crowd-sourced smartphone traffic app that infers real-time travel conditions. While the pace of CAV advancement makes a static chart quickly outdated, there is general consensus on the four main stages of the concept that connects them all, called "connected mobility," and all of them overlap. The stages of connected mobility, or levels of autonomy, are explained below to illustrate, in a very simple way, a rough timeline of CAV and connected mobility:
Figure 1. Illustration. Connected vehicles can help to prevent crashes at busy intersections.
Source: U.S. Department of Transportation
Figure 2. Illustration. Platooning uses cooperative adaptive cruise control to improve traffic flow stability.
Source: Source: U.S. Department of Transportation
Regulatory and Government Enablers
The Federal government influences, directs, and in essence enables CAV primarily by its funding for research, development, and testing related to CAV standards, technologies, and applications; advancing key rulemakings; and providing guidance and architectures that inform and instruct deployment communities. New technologies to enable vehicle automation have largely been driven by the private sector, including both traditional auto manufacturers and the new "disrupter" businesses in the CAV market, which include companies such as Google, Apple, and Uber. In contrast, connected vehicle technologies have been driven largely by the regulatory and government efforts which are described in Table 1 below.
Connected Vehicle Deployment Status
FHWA Connected Vehicle Pilot Program Information:
From facility- and corridor-specific tests conducted by one primary organization, to city-wide integrated mobility concepts deployed cooperatively by diverse teams with USDOT technical and financial support, the scope and breadth of connected vehicle pilots shows that CAV can be a natural extension – the next step, if you will – in integrated corridor management. Below are a handful of CAV pilot initiatives and brief descriptions.
1 USDOT, Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office, "Intermodal Research: Integrated Corridor Management" Web page. Available at: http://www.its.dot.gov/research_archives/icms/index.htm. Return to note 1.
2 General Motors, "GM Heritage Center - OnStar" Web page. Available at: https://history.gmheritagecenter.com/wiki/index.php/OnStar. Return to note 2.
3 USDOT, Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office, "U.S. Department of Transportation Announces up to $42 Million in Next Generation Connected Vehicle Technologies," press release issued September 14th, 2015. Available at: http://www.its.dot.gov/press/2015/ngv_tech_announcement.htm. Return to note 3.
4 Ibid. Return to note 4.
5 Ibid. Return to note 5.
7Google, "Google Self-Driving Car Project, Monthly Report, October 2016." Available at: https://static.googleusercontent.com/media/www.google.com/en//selfdrivingcar/files/reports/report-1016.pdf. Return to note 7.
8 OEM, or original equipment manufacturer, is a common name in the auto industry for the "traditional" car manufacturers. This differentiates them from the new disrupter community. Tier 1 providers are the primary major parts manufacturers that supply many of the OEMs. Return to note 8.
9 Nicole Casal Moore, University of Michigan College of Engineering, "New Toyota autonomous vehicle hub boosts region's leadership in transforming mobility," April 7, 2016. Available at: http://www.engin.umich.edu/college/about/news/stories/2016/april/new-toyota-autonomous-vehicle-hub Return to note 9.
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration