Office of Operations
21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

Shared Mobility: Current Practices and Guiding Principles

CHAPTER 4. The Role Of Public Agencies In Shared Mobility

a carpool road sign
Source: Thinkstock Photo

Local and regional governments are the most common public partners of shared mobility operators because of their role in transportation planning, public transportation, and parking policy. Congestion mitigation, air quality improvement, and parking management have been long-time goals of local governments. In recent years, climate action planning has further raised the awareness of local governments about shared mobility. Nine common areas that impact local and regional governments and shared mobility include:

  • Health, Safety, and Consumer Protection: Local and state governments and public agencies have established administrative regulations, ordinances, and laws that may require insurance, driver physicals, and/or the disclosure of factual information to provide transparency about services and/or prevent the dissemination of inaccurate or misleading information. Another important consumer protection is policies that ensure access to services (e.g., Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964).
  • Taxation: The role of tax incentives and taxation on shared mobility, such as rental car excise taxes, sales taxes, and commuter tax breaks, is a challenging issue for local authorities.
  • Insurance: Insurance limits and requirements for shared modes are key problems for state, local, and regional governments, particularly among P2P vehicle sharing and on-demand ride services.
  • Parking and Access to Rights-of-Way: Local and regional governments have been addressing the key issue of managing on-street curb space for shared modes, including equity issues pertaining to the use of public space for a private business or non-profit purpose, as well as competing operators and modes.
  • Signage and Advertising: Local authorities play a key role in regulating the signage and advertising of shared modes.
  • Multimodal Integration: Local and regional governments determine the role of public transit operators in advancing multimodal integration with shared modes. Local and regional governments also often investigate the role of telematics, fare integration, and public transit discounts in mitigating obstacles, such as technological barriers, lack of integration within existing transportation systems, skepticism regarding multimodality, and age-dependent travel limitations.
  • Planning Processes: Public agencies and local governments have multiple goals regarding incorporating shared mobility into municipal and regional planning processes, such as land use and transportation plans. These processes often require data to assist public agencies and local governments in planning and forecasting the impacts of shared mobility on public infrastructure.
  • Data Sharing, Privacy, and Standardization: It is critical for local and regional governments to develop best practices that identify data standards and balance data sharing (open data) and privacy among individuals, companies, and public agencies.
  • Accessibility and Equity Issues: Local governments and public agencies are impacted by reporting trends in shared mobility as they relate to accessibility, including how public agencies and shared mobility service providers define, measure, and address equity.

Helmet Kiosk for the Pronto Cycle Share System in Seattle

Source: Susan Shaheen

FIGURE 3. Helmet Kiosk for the Pronto Cycle Share System in Seattle

Key opportunities and challenges for government include increased competition among operators and modes, determining the legality of new service models, defining innovative service models, and developing policies that address these issues. The following sections provide examples of supportive and unsupportive policies, success stories, opportunities, and challenges that highlight the role of government in shared mobility.

Health, Safety, and Consumer Protection

Public agencies and local and state governments have established recommended guidelines, administrative regulations, ordinances, and laws that both impact and regulate shared mobility service providers. Health and safety includes laws and ordinances meant to protect the safety and welfare of shared mobility users. In addition to health and safety laws, consumer protection laws defend consumer interests and ensure fair trade practices, open competition, and the accuracy of information in the marketplace. Broadly speaking, the purpose of consumer protection laws is to prevent fraudulent or unfair business practices. Some key examples of health, safety, and consumer protection laws impacting shared mobility include the following.

  • Helmet Laws requiring bikesharing users to wear helmets while riding impact shared mobility. For example, King County Washington's Board of Health maintains a bicycle helmet law that requires all cyclists regardless of age to wear a helmet. The law has been in effect since August 2003 and includes the City of Seattle. Pronto Cycle Share in Seattle has maintained compliance with the helmet law by allowing users to pick up helmets from boxes adjacent to kiosks. The provision of helmets that can be borrowed on the honor system was believed to be operationally easier to implement than a helmet dispensing mechanism.
  • Insurance Laws mandating minimum insurance levels for P2P carsharing impact shared mobility. This can include requirements for P2P vehicle operators to carry and provide insurance for drivers, as well as protections for P2P vehicle owners prohibiting the loss of personal vehicle coverage, if they sub-lease their vehicle for P2P rental use. For example, in June 2011, the Oregon legislature passed personal vehicle sharing legislation known as HB3149, which requires that a vehicle owner's insurance policy include personal injury protection and uninsured motorist coverage (Auto Rental News, 2012). Additionally, the law requires that a P2P carsharing program provide insurance coverage for each of the vehicles in its fleets. The law states that if a vehicle owner is named as a defendant in a civil action when the owner is not driving the vehicle, P2P carsharing programs “shall have the duty to defend and indemnify the vehicle's registered owner” (Auto Rental News, 2012). Finally, HB3149 prohibits the use of commercial vehicles in a personal vehicle sharing program. Other laws may protect shared mobility operators from vicarious liability (i.e., legal doctrine that imposes liability upon one person for the actions of another). Shared mobility operators, namely carsharing providers, have successfully argued that carsharing operators should be exempt from vicarious liability under the Graves Amendment for protections that have been traditionally afforded to car rental companies.
  • For-Hire Driver Laws requiring driver physicals and minimum insurance for taxis, liveries, and ridesourcing impact shared mobility services. For example, many public utilities, taxi, and limousine commissions have regulated the business practices of for-hire vehicle services using permits, medallions, certificates, and operator licenses. Historically, these for-hire vehicle consumer protection laws have sought to protect public safety, regulate fares, regulate the number and service quality of operators, and ensure disabled access. In recent years, a number of public agencies have implemented ordinances and laws for ridesourcing. For example, the City of Austin recently ratified a municipal ordinance regulating ridesourcing, which includes a number of provisions such as establishing minimum insurance requirements, requiring driver training, and limiting the number of consecutive hours a driver can work, and prohibitions against refusing to pick up passengers or charging more for disabled passengers (City of Austin, 2014). See below for more details on the City of Austin's TNC Ordinance.

Austin’s Comprehensive Transportation Network Companies Ordinance

In October 2014, the City Council in Austin, Texas approved one of the most comprehensive ordinances defining and regulating TNCs as “an organization whether a corporation, partnership, sole proprietor, or other form, which provides on-demand transportation services for compensation using an online-enabled application (app) or platform to connect passengers with drivers.” The municipal ordinance requires that TNCs enter into an agreement with the city that includes the following provisions:

Insurance Provisions:

  • Provide primary commercial automobile liability insurance coverage with a minimum combined single limit of $1 million for each occurrence of bodily injury and property damage for accidents involving TNC vehicles in transit (defined as the time beginning when a driver accepts a trip and ending when a rider departs the vehicle). The insurance must name the City of Austin as an additional insured;
  • During the time period when a TNC driver has logged into an app and indicated their availability to drive, the TNC will provide insurance coverage of at least $30,000 for death and personal injury per a person; $60,000 for death or personal injury per an incident; and $25,000 for property damage. This insurance can be provided by either the driver, the company, or any combination of both;
  • TNCs are required to submit data to the city on insurance claims and the effectiveness of coverage limits annually; and
  • TNCs must notify their drivers that there may be a gap in coverage beginning when a driver logs into the app.

Public Safety Provisions:

  • TNCs must establish a driver's training program and implement a zero tolerance policy for drug and alcohol use among drivers;
  • The TNC app must display a picture of the driver, a description or picture of the vehicle, and license plate number;
  • TNCs must conduct background checks of drivers. In December 2015, Austin's City Council amended its ordinance to require fingerprinting as part of its background checks. The fingerprinting establishes four benchmarks for TNCs to achieve compliance by February 2017;
  • Drivers must be at least 21 years of age; and
  • Drivers are prohibited from driving more than 12 hours in any 24-hour period, may not accept any rides outside of the online application, and must make reasonable accommodations for service animals.

Consumer Protections:

  • Passengers must receive an estimated trip cost and a receipt with the total amount paid after the completion of a trip;
  • Passengers must be able to consent to dynamic pricing on apps; and
  • Dynamic pricing is prohibited during periods of market disruptions.

Access Provisions:

  • Drivers are prohibited from refusing to accept disabled passengers or charging higher fees of disabled passengers; and
  • TNCs must conduct outreach with low-income communities and organizations with ADA compliant vehicles.

Update: In May 2016, Austin residents will be voting on an updated TNC ordinance by referendum. If approved, the referendum would repeal the fingerprinting requirements approved by Austin’s city council in December 2015. 

Source: City of Austin, 2014; Harrington, 2016
  • Pricing Regulations mandating that consumers receive an estimated service cost and receipt for services also impact shared mobility. Regulations can include the payment method (e.g., acceptance of credit/debit cards); disclosures related to special discounts and surge pricing; and in some cases, prohibitions against special types of pricing (e.g., surge pricing during market disruptions like natural disasters).
  • Access Laws protecting access for special needs populations and protected classes impacts shared mobility services. This can include provisions mandating the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) access and prohibitions against discrimination against protected classes including race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, pregnancy, citizenship, familial status, disability status, and veteran status. Many of these laws not only prohibit discrimination against the end user but also shared mobility employees.


Unclear definitions and service models among shared mobility services, such as carsharing, ridesourcing, taxis, and rental cars, have led to confusion among state and local governments about taxing these mobility services. Rental car taxes have been particularly popular among politicians because the taxes were believed to target visitors, not voters. Taxes commonly applied to shared mobility services include rental car excise taxes, sales taxes, convention center surcharges, and transaction fees. As of 2009, there were a total of 115 car rental excise taxes that had been enacted in 43 states and the District of Columbia, many of which were being applied to carsharing (Bieszczat, 2011).

A DePaul University study by Bieszczat et al. (2011) compared carsharing reservation prices in 12 of 13 major metropolitan markets with 50 or more carsharing vehicles to assess the overall impact of carsharing taxes. The study documented the extensive impact of carsharing taxes on end-user pricing and found that carsharing is being taxed between 1.7 to 2.2 times the rate of general goods and services. Using population-based weighted averages, Bieszczat et al. found that one-hour carsharing reservations were taxed at 17.93 percent and 24-hour reservations were taxed at 14.08 percent compared to 8.06 percent for general goods and services, at the time of the study. In one example, carsharing taxes in Hartford, CT increased the end-user price by 21.5 percent, compared to only 10.5 percent for a 24-hour reservation. For the first hour, the original $8 user fee increased to $9.72 after $0.48 was added for the 6-percent state sales tax, $0.24 was added for a 3-percent state motor vehicle rental surcharge, and a $1-per-day state motor vehicle rental surcharge was included. Table 1, from Bieszczat et al., presents the total and component costs of a one-hour carsharing reservation in their sampled locations that applied the highest tax rates to carsharing.

Table 1. Total and Component Costs of Highly Taxed One-Hour Carsharing Reservations

Total Cost

Base Rate


Effective Tax Rate

Applicable Taxes

Hoboken, New Jersey





7% sales tax (state)
$5 fee per auto rental (state)

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania





7% sales tax (state & county) 2% auto rental tax (state)
$2 fee per auto rental (county)
$2 fee per auto rental (state)

Tempe, Arizona





9.3% sales tax on rentals (state, county & city) 3.25% rental surcharge (county), minimum $2.50

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania





8% sales tax (state & county) 2% vehicle rental tax (state) 2% vehicle rental tax (county)
$2 fee per day per rental (state)

Miami, Florida





7%\sales tax (state & county)
$2 per day auto rental surcharge (state)

Albuquerque, New Mexico





7% sales tax (state, county & city) 5% auto rental tax (state)
$2 per day auto rental surcharge (state)

Colorado Springs, Colorado





7.4% sales tax (state, county & city) 3% auto rental tax (county & city)
$2 per day auto rental fee (state)

Fayetteville, Arkansas





9.25% sales tax (state, county & city) 10% auto rental tax (state)
3.25% auto rental tax (local)

Hartford, Connecticut





6% sales tax (state)
3% auto rental tax (state)
$1 per day tourism surcharge (state)

New York, New York





8.875% sales tax (state, city) 6% auto rental tax (state)
5% auto rental tax (metro commuter district)

Seattle, Washington





9.5% sales tax (state, county, local) 9.7% auto rental tax (state/local)

Source: Reprinted from Bieszczat et al., 2011
Below are a few examples of supportive tax policies in shared mobility. The figure excludes a former policy in Washington State, which exempted carsharing from rental and excise taxes (Bieszczat, 2011). In 2007, this exemption was repealed, and the state’s Department of Revenue imposed a 9.7-percent car rental tax on carsharing. Despite legislative efforts at developing a definition for carsharing to exempt it from rental car taxes, the proposed bill failed to gain traction (Bieszczat, 2011). Similar legislative efforts in Illinois that attempted to exempt carsharing from the state’s rental car taxes also failed to achieve the votes required to advance from committee to the legislative floor (Bieszczat, 2011).

Examples of Supportive Tax Policies in Shared Mobility

Supportive Carsharing Tax Policies:

  • In 1999, Multnomah County was one of the first jurisdictions to amend its code to exempt carsharing from a 17-percent car rental tax.
  • In 2005, Boston revised its policy to apply a $10 convention center financing surcharge on the first carsharing reservation per an annual membership. Previously, the city had imposed the $10 surcharge on every vehicle rental transaction.
  • In 2005, Chicago eliminated the eight percent “Personal Property Lease Transaction Tax” on carsharing rentals less than 24 hours in duration. The city defined carsharing as a membership-based organization providing self-service access to vehicles with inclusive insurance and no written agreement required per rental period.

Source: Bieszczat, 2011

Additionally, taxation of ridesourcing has emerged as a key issue in numerous international jurisdictions. Services, such as Uber, have been the target of tax probes in Belgium and India, for example, because these users pay through a Netherlands-based shell corporation, Uber BV, and avoid paying local taxes (, 2014). In March 2015, India’s Finance Ministry amended its 2015 to 2016 tax rules establishing an “aggregator model” characterization to tax e-commerce services, such as Uber and Trip Advisor (Srivastava & Surabhi, 2015). Domestically, taxation policies for taxi services, limousines, and ridesourcing are not clearly defined. Questions over whether or not drivers should declare and pay taxes, how much, and what taxes to pay have not been clearly answered by local and state jurisdictions. In Georgia, proposed legislation would have established a legislative study committee to look at methods for taxing for-hire vehicle services; however, this failed to obtain the required number of votes for approval. At the federal level, drivers are required to report wages from W2s (if employees), from 1099s (if independent contractors), and all other income as miscellaneous income as part of a driver’s federal income taxes.


This section discusses insurance for carsharing, P2P carsharing, bikesharing, ridesharing, and for-hire vehicle services.


Insurance emerged as a key issue following the terrorist attacks of 9/11 in the area of roundtrip carsharing. At that time, North American carsharing operators confronted substantially higher premiums, which often exceeded $2,500 per vehicle annually, as insurance companies became far more risk adverse (Shaheen, Cohen, & Roberts, 2006). The average cost of insuring a carsharing vehicle has since dropped to an average of $789 per a carsharing vehicle, according to an insurance study of six carsharing operators from 2008 through 2015 (Shaheen, Shen, & Martin, 2016). Although insurance has become increasingly available and more affordable for carsharing, insurance challenges have emerged with the advent of many innovative shared modes.
In 2005, Congress passed the Graves Amendment as part of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, protecting rental car owners from vicarious liability. In 2009, a driver who was rear-ended by a Zipcar vehicle sued both the driver and Zipcar, claiming that Zipcar should be held responsible for death, injuries, and property damage resulting from negligence in the use and operation of its vehicle. In 2010, the New York Supreme Court ruled that Zipcar was entitled to protections against vicarious liability afforded by the Graves Amendment (Auto Rental News, 2010). A similar suit brought against car2go in the fall of 2014 involving a collision with a drunk carsharing driver in Florida has not yet been litigated (Pacenti, 2014).

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Carsharing

Insurance also reemerged as a key issue in the late-2000s with peer-to-peer (P2P) vehicle services. Most state insurance laws have not kept pace with the introduction of P2P models. At issue is defining when the vehicle owner’s policy ends and when the P2P carsharing operator’s commercial policy begins. In California, Oregon, and Washington, P2P vehicle insurance legislation was ratified as part of AB 1871, HB 3149, and HB 2384, respectively (Shaheen, Mallery, & Kingsley, 2012).

Peer-to-Peer Carsharing Insurance Policy in Oregon

Oregon has approved peer-to-peer vehicle sharing legislation that defines and outlines peer-to-peer vehicle sharing coverage. Specifically, the law requires personal vehicle sharing programs to provide vehicle liability insurance and assumes liability in the event of loss or injury for periods when a vehicle is in use by the program. The law also prohibits a motor vehicle owner’s liability insurer from cancelling a policy or reclassifying use from a private passenger motor vehicle to a commercial use vehicle because of a vehicle’s use in a personal vehicle sharing program.
Source: Auto Rental News, 2012.

California’s AB 1871, which represents the first P2P insurance legislation, has been a key model for personal vehicle sharing legislation in other states. All three of these laws classify personal vehicle sharing as non-commercial use and limit “the circumstances under which the vehicle owner’s automobile liability insurance can be subject to liability” to prevent cancellation of primary automobile insurance policies (AB 1871, 2010). Personal vehicle sharing programs assume liability when the vehicle is rented in a shared capacity, and the owner’s insurance policy resumes coverage once it is returned (Shaheen, Mallery, & Kingsley, 2012). In turn, vehicle owners are indemnified for any loss or injury that occurs through shared use not resulting from their negligence. Time of use, along with initial and final locations of vehicle usage must be clearly delineated through “verifiable electronic records identifying” when it is being used as part of a personal vehicle sharing program (AB 1871, 2010). This prevents premium spikes for primary insurance policies resulting from unverified shared use. Vehicle owners who share their autos in states lacking personal vehicle sharing legislation risk non-renewal of primary insurance policies, as well as premium spikes resulting from increased use (Shaheen, Mallery, & Kingsley, 2012).


In addition to carsharing and P2P carsharing insurance, owners and operators of bikesharing programs can be sued if one of their bicycles is involved in a serious collision resulting in injuries, fatalities, or property damage. Like carsharing, bikesharing owners and operators can manage risk and limit their liability by signing waivers or indemnification clauses, keeping equipment well maintained, and educating users about bicycle and roadway safety. Unlike rental cars (and now carsharing), bikesharing programs do not have statutory protections against vicarious liability. Also unlike rental cars, bikesharing users do not have the ability to purchase insurance at the time of a mobility transaction. As such, the user and the bikesharing operator may be held responsible for the conduct and damages associated with their program’s equipment. In the case of user liability, home owner and rental policies would often cover this. General commercial liability insurance can protect bikesharing operators from public and product liability risks that may include bodily injury or property damage caused by direct or indirect actions of the insured. Liability insurance is designed to offer protection against third-party insurance claims (e.g., someone who suffers a loss either from using a bikesharing system or a loss of a non-user resulting from the use of a bikesharing bicycle). Generally, unless self-insured by a sponsor or local government entity, most North American bikesharing programs carry some form of liability coverage. Although most bikesharing operators maintain insurance to protect against litigation, most policies do not protect riders against medical bills and lost wages associated with bicycle collisions (Glover, 2013).


Ridesharing programs, which include carpooling and vanpooling, can present a variety of risk scenarios depending on the program operation. Typically, employer-based vanpool programs are operated using one of three models: 1) employer owns the vehicle and operates the program; 2) employees own and operate the program with or without employer subsidies; or 3) a third-party contractor owns the vehicles and administers the vanpool program (Business Insurance, 2008).
Employer liability can be a key concern, if the vehicle is involved in a commuting collision. Many employers prohibit the use of carpool/vanpool vehicles during the workday for non-commute trips to limit this liability. Employers are further reducing their auto liability by outsourcing their carpool/vanpool programs to third-party contractors, such as vRide and Zimride. Employers and third-party contractors also reduce their exposure through vehicle maintenance and driver screening processes that can include physical exams and background checks. In California, statutory provisions protect employers from worker compensation claims involving vanpool collisions, if the vanpool is sponsored or mandated by a governmental agency. This can include mandates to comply with GHG emission reductions, local trip reduction mandates, and spare the air days (Business Insurance, 2008).

For-Hire Driver Laws

Safety and insurance risks related to for-hire vehicle services have long been a topic of discussion. A comprehensive study of taxicab crashes in New York City completed in 2006 found that taxi drivers were involved in at-fault crashes 30 percent less than the general public when compared on a VMT/VKT basis. However, the study also noted that when crashes did occur, the bodily injuries of those involved were much higher than the accident severity associated with drivers of non-commercial vehicles (Schaller Consulting, 2006). Many insurance companies charge premiums based both on driver experience and safe operations (Fraker, 2014). However, a review of safety-related incidents suggests that established screening methods contain gaps that may negatively impact driver and passenger safety. Driver safety from theft and violent crime also represents an insurance risk to for-hire vehicle services. For-hire services that employ a social networking component (i.e., rating systems) may mitigate some of this risk to the extent that social networking profiles can be verified for a person.
Insurance re-emerged as a prominent issue in shared mobility policy with the advent of ridesourcing services, such as uberX and Lyft. In the fall of 2012, the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) issued cease and desist letters to Lyft and Tickengo for violating regulatory provisions pertaining to “charter carriers.” In the summer of 2013, the CPUC developed the term transportation network company or TNC, which was defined as a company that “provide[s] prearranged transportation services for compensation using an online-enabled application or platform (such as smartphone apps) to connect drivers using their personal vehicles with passengers.” CPUC granted ridesourcing interim approval to operate while they reviewed public policies and insurance requirements surrounding for-hire vehicle services.

Transportation Network Companies Policy in California

The California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) was the first public agency to define transportation network companies (TNCs). Its definition is “a company that uses an online-enabled platform to connect passengers with drivers using their personal, non-commercial, vehicles.” CPUC established a number of requirements for legal operations for TNCs operating in California including:

  • AB2293 which took effect on July 1, 2015, supplemented CPUC's insurance requirements (below) mandating period 1 insurance coverage (see Figure 4 below). The law requires TNCs maintain primary third-party insurance coverage in the amounts of $50,000 per an individual with a total of $100,000 per an accident along with up to $30,000 for property damage.
  • Maintaining $1 million in liability coverage when the driver is en route for pick-up and when the rider is being transported, along with contingent liability coverage of up to $100,000 once the driver has turned the app-on, see Figure 4 below);
  • Obtaining a CPUC license to operate;
  • Having each driver undergo a criminal background check;
  • Establishing a driver training program;
  • Implementing a zero-tolerance policy on drugs and alcohol;
  • Conducting a 19-point vehicle inspection; and
  • Obtaining authorization from airports before conducting any operations on airport property or entry into any airport.

Source: California Public Utilities Commission, 2015

In January 2014, a driver, alleged to be distracted, was operating an Uber app when involved in an accident that killed a six-year-old child. This incident raised national awareness to the issues of distracted driving, safety, and insurance periods for ridesourcing. In 2014, CPUC adopted enhanced TNC regulations requiring that drivers maintain $1 million in liability coverage along with other requirements, such as background checks and vehicle inspections to operate. See below for more information on CPUC’s current regulatory requirements for ridesourcing. Three coverage periods are included in many ridesourcing policies governing insurance: 1) when a driver is signed-in to an app and available to drive; 2) when a driver accepts a ride and is en route for pick-up; and 3) when a rider is being transported from an origin to a destination. See Figure 4 for a review of these coverage periods.

Driver Insurance Periods Impacting Ridesourcing/TNC Operations.

Source: Transportation Sustainability Research Center (TSRC)

Figure 4. Driver Insurance Periods Impacting Ridesourcing/TNC Operations

In 2015, a number of private sector insurance providers began offering ridesourcing insurance in select markets that require coverage while a driver has the app on and is awaiting a ridematch. For example, United Services Automobile Association (USAA) initiated a pilot program in Colorado extending members’ existing auto policy coverage and deductibles from the moment a driver’s app is turned on until they are matched with a passenger for approximately $6 to $8 per month (Hirsch, 2015). Metromile has partnered with Uber, offering a pay-as-you-go insurance option by plugging a “dongle” into the vehicle’s on-board diagnostic (OBD) system (Cecil, 2015). By tracking driving and pairing it with Uber’s app, Metromile can subtract business miles from personal miles, only charging the driver for non-Uber trips. Metromile is currently available in California, Illinois, and Washington. Finally, Allstate, Erie, Farmers, Geico Commercial, and Progressive all have insurance offerings in select markets for ridesourcing drivers (Cecil, 2015).
Even with CPUC’s ridesourcing policy, challenges remain in coordinating the policy among state agencies. Despite CPUC’s regulatory authority over for-hire vehicle services, the California’s Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) recently suggested that drivers must have commercial license plates, even if they only pick up passengers occasionally (Hoge, 2015). At present, the matter is under review, and multiple state agencies are assessing operator requirements(Costa, 2015).

Parking and Rights-of-Way

The allocation of parking and rights-of-way remain a key issue. In the early years of shared mobility, on-street carsharing parking was a priority. Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Vancouver (British Columbia), and the State of California represent some of the early pioneers of policies related to parking and rights-of-way. Increased competition among operators and modes for on-street and public space, coupled with the expansion of shared mobility into innovative service models, such as carsharing, public bikesharing, and high-tech company shuttles, has created the need for new policies to address a different set of challenges.


In roundtrip carsharing, there are numerous examples of parking policies. For instance, Portland, OR, developed the “Option Zone,” which is a carsharing parking space designated by an orange pole and attached bicycle rack that can be mounted to parking meter heads and curbs. Philadelphia, PA, developed its own on-street parking policy for carsharing, initially granting on-street parking to non-profit operators only. Philadelphia was the first jurisdiction to distinguish between for-profit and non-profit carsharing operators. Vancouver, British Columbia, developed one of the earliest universal parking permits, dedicating a permit for carsharing vehicles (in contrast to a parking spot). The universal permit enabled carsharing members to park a carsharing vehicle in all 19 of the city’s parking zones. Although designed for roundtrip carsharing, Vancouver’s policy set the stage for similar universal parking permit policies enabling free-floating one-way carsharing. Finally, California has amended its vehicle code under AB 2154 to allow local governments to designate on-street parking for carsharing and ridesharing vehicle use. Previously, the designation of on-street parking for these functions had been prohibited by the state’s motor vehicle code.

Option Zones and Parking Auctions in Portland, Oregon

Portland has been well known for developing one of the first on-street carsharing parking policies in the early-2000s, which incorporated “Option Zones”–orange poles with bicycle racks that could be mounted to parking meter heads to raise awareness of carsharing and encourage multi-modal connections. In January 2013, the City of Portland revised its carsharing parking policy and established an auction process for carsharing parking. Each year, the Portland Bureau of Transportation creates a list of on-street metered parking spaces available for lease to carsharing operators. The Bureau of Transportation manages the auction process where carsharing operators can bid on parking spaces. The minimum bid is calculated by adding the sum of lost meter revenue and the installation, maintenance, and administrative costs associated with leasing the parking space for carsharing use. Carsharing operators outside the metered district may apply for on-street parking after receiving approval by adjacent property owners. The city has also recognized the importance of use.
Source: Shaheen, Cohen, & Roberts, 2006

Recent public policy amendments and pilot projects have attempted to address competition among operators and to provide flexibility for free-floating one-way service models. A pilot project currently underway in San Francisco established a policy for allocating up to 450 parking spaces among multiple roundtrip and P2P carsharing providers.

Roundtrip Carsharing in San Francisco, California

The San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA) maintains an on-street carsharing parking program. City CarShare, Zipcar, and Getaround all participate in the SFMTA on-street carsharing parking program that designates up to 450 parking spaces for carsharing vehicles. To qualify, SFMTA requires that the following requirements are met:

  • Carsharing operator maintains a citywide network of at least 10 vehicles;
  • Vehicles are available 24 hours a day, seven days a week using a virtual storefront (no staff required), or available during the hours a vehicle is parked in a garage;
  • Automobile insurance is provided for each member for the duration of the rental;
  • Vehicles are only made available for rental in hourly increments or less;
  • Vehicles are made available for at least 75% of any given month;
  • Conduct a new member outreach campaign and provide a summary of outreach activities to SFMTA;
  • Provide quarterly reports on the number of members in the city by zip code, vehicle locations, trip data, and operational metrics to SFMTA; and
  • Survey carsharing members to gauge changes in travel patterns at the beginning and end of the pilot program.

Each organization that participates in the program is eligible for 150 parking spaces (0.05 percent of the city’s total on-street parking). The SFMTA Board of Directors allocates locations through an application process that includes an engineering review, community outreach, and approval. Monthly pricing per space varies from $50 to $225, based on three demand zones established by SFMTA. Operators must pay a one-time installation fee of $400. Each approved carsharing vehicle receives a special parking permit that exempts it from street sweeping, time limits, and other restrictions.
Source: SFMTA, 2013

An 18-month parking pilot similar to the San Francisco’s pilot commenced in Boston in September 2015. In Seattle, the city council has expanded a prior pilot program permitting up to four carsharing operators to compete for on-street parking. Unlike San Francisco’s policy, Seattle’s policy permits carsharing vehicles to “float,” allowing parking for one-way service models. A number of other areas, such as Washington, DC; Austin, TX; and Columbus, OH, have implemented similar policies allowing for free-floating carsharing parking (Segraves, 2014) (City of Austin, 2009) (Rouan, 2014).

Free-Floating One-Way Carsharing Parking in Seattle, Washington

Free-floating one-way carsharing created a number of new parking and operational challenges. In December 2012, the Seattle City Council approved a one-year pilot program with car2go that enabled its vehicles to “float” around the city. Car2go paid the city $1,330 per vehicle per year for administrative costs, on-street parking, and residential parking zone permits for 350 vehicles. Car2go is required to provide the city with data on how much parking was used and to pay any additional parking fees accrued to the city at the end of each year. In December 2014, Seattle revised its carsharing policy to permit up to four carsharing operators to each apply for 500 vehicle permits (or 750 vehicle permits, if the operator agreed to cover the entire city). The permits costs $1,703 per vehicle per year and are estimated to raise $2.2 million in revenue in 2015 and $3.4 million in 2016.
Source: City of Seattle, 2015

Public Bikesharing

In North America, the majority of public bikesharing kiosks are located on public land (typically on-street in a former parking space or on curbs). Generally, stations are placed on public rights-of-way either through a municipal request for proposal (RFP) process granting use of the land in cases of public agency program operation, sponsorship, or operator request through informal agreements, real estate licenses to use, easements, or memoranda of understanding/agreement (Shaheen S. A., Martin, Cohen, & Finson, 2012).

High-Tech Company Shuttles

In addition to on-street parking, loading zones have also become a public policy concern for some jurisdictions. In San Francisco, SFMTA was having difficulty with high-tech company shuttles interfering with its bus options. In January 2014, SFMTA announced a program enabling these shuttle services to pay for access to loading zones, if certain guidelines are followed, such as yielding to public buses and pulling to the front of the loading zone to make room for other vehicles (San Francisco Muncipal Transportation Agency, 2014). State law limits the fee to the cost of operating the program. In October 2015, the cost was $3.67 per shuttle, per each stop made (San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency, 2015).

Signage and Advertising

Local authorities play a key role in setting policies associated with the signage and advertising of shared modes. This role can range from permitting street and curbside markings, signs, street fixtures, and wayfinding signs and regulating private sector signage and advertising. For example, in the early-2000s, the City of Portland established “Option Zones,” tall orange poles where a bike rack could be attached to parking meter heads to denote carsharing availability (see Figure 5). Other jurisdictions have established curb and street markings to identify carsharing parking and high-tech company shuttle pick-up and drop-off locations.

Portland’s Carsharing Option Zone

Source: Reprinted from Millard-Ball et al., 2005

Figure 5. Portland’s Carsharing Option Zone

In addition to providing signage and street fixtures to identify shared modes, local governments and public agencies have also been instrumental in regulating advertising on public bikesharing hubs. With bikesharing in particular, operating costs are typically funded through a combination of user fees, advertising, and sponsorships (including naming rights, which can include exclusive equipment branding). In a 2012 study of bikesharing, sponsorships and advertising ranked as two of the top three funding and revenue sources for operators (Shaheen S. A., Martin, Cohen, & Finson, 2012). At its start, Washington, DC, faced a number of challenges in siting its bikesharing stations in light of sponsor advertising. The city had an ordinance that prohibited advertising on District-owned property, and special legislation had to be enacted to allow bikesharing advertising on public bus shelters (Kaplan, 2010). Amending local ordinances to permit advertising can assist shared mobility operators, including bikesharing programs, in maximizing cost recovery through various advertising mediums.

Multimodal Integration

Public transit agencies can play a notable role in advancing multimodal integration with shared modes. Public transit agencies can provide policy guidance and technical assistance with information technology, joint marketing, fare integration, and public transit discounts. These policies can play a critical role in mitigating obstacles, such as technological barriers and lack of integration within existing transportation systems, and in addressing skepticism regarding multimodality.

Historically, most shared modes, such as carsharing and bikesharing, successfully co-located shared services on site or adjacent to public transportation. While many airports have adopted ridesourcing regulations in the U.S., many have not yet done so. Ridesourcing vehicles often are prohibited from operating at airport locations either adjacent to or alongside taxi services. In October 2014, the San Francisco International Airport (SFO) amended its ground transportation regulations to permit three large ridesourcing service providers to operate on site (Soper, 2014). In February 2015, SFO authorities again amended their regulations to permit e-Hail taxi services to operate at the airport (Soper, 2015). In March 2015, Orange County California’s John Wayne International Airport also amended its policy to permit ridesourcing to pick up and drop off airport passengers (Fleischman, 2015).

While co-locating shared modes at or near public transportation is a common practice, fare and information integration remain notable challenges. Chicago’s joint fare card between the Chicago Transit Authority and IGO (now Enterprise CarShare) represented the first integrated shared mobility-public transportation fare card in North America. More recent innovations include fare integration between HOURCAR and Metro Transit in the Twin Cities and a partnership between BCycle and RideScout and its mobile payment subsidiary GlobeSherpa. See Table 2 for more information on these and other recent developments.

Shifts in technological trends may speed the transition to integration. As of 2014, it was estimated that more than 90 percent of public transit fare payments were made by “closed loop” fare cards administered by public transit agencies (Shaheen & Christensen, 2015). It is forecast that by 2023, public transit agency administered fare cards will account for less than 10 percent of public transportation fare payments, and the remaining 90 percent of fare payments will be split between bank cards and mobile payment systems (Shaheen & Christensen, 2015). Emerging technologies, such as Bluetooth low energy and near field communications, coupled with smartphone apps and mobile payments, may provide consumers with the ability to access and pay for shared mobility services and public transportation using a single electronic device, such as a mobile phone (Bender, 2013). While both real-time and open data are becoming increasingly available, incorporating public transportation trip planning with private sector modes, notably shared modes, remains a challenge in many jurisdictions. The lack of available real-time data and access to APIs2, as well as reluctance of the public and private sector to collaborate, can provide institutional challenges to digital multimodal integration.

a car2go vehicle with a bicycle rack attached to the vehicle


FIGURE 6. car2go Bicycle Racks

A number of carsharing operators, such as Modo, offer open data on vehicle location, vehicle type, current and future availability, and pricing as part of their API. Public transit agencies can also be instrumental in joint planning processes to integrate shared modes and lease and sub-lease rights-of-way to shared modes for carsharing parking, bikesharing kiosks, for-hire vehicle service loading zones, and other uses. Table 2, on the following page, provides a few of the many examples of public agencies encouraging multimodal integration. Shared mobility operators can also encourage multimodal integration in conjunction with and independently of public agencies. For example, car2go recently installed bicycle racks on its Portland carsharing fleet to encourage bicycle-carsharing trip chaining (see Figure 6).

Table 2. Examples of Shared Mobility Multimodal Integration Efforts


Arlington County’s Transit Development Planning with Capital Bikeshare

In October 2011, Arlington County began a planning process with Capital Bikeshare to complete a long-term transit development plan to encourage multimodal integration with Capital Bikeshare. Finalized in November 2012, the county’s transit development plan (TDP) establishes a strategic blueprint on how to more effectively integrate bikesharing and public transportation in Arlington County. Currently being implemented, the TDP has a planning horizon through 2018 (Bike Arlington, 2012 ).

BCycle and RideScout Demonstration

In October 2015, BCycle and RideScout conducted a demonstration allowing users to unlock and pay for a bikesharing bicycle using the multimodal mobility aggregator app RideScout (Marich, 2015). 

Bikesharing at Caltrain Stations in the San Francisco Bay Area

Many public bikesharing operators co-locate bikesharing kiosks at public transit hubs. Bay Area Bike Share is taking a regional approach and has located bicycles at seven stations along the Caltrain corridor, spanning nearly 50 miles (80 km) from San Francisco to San Jose (Bay Area Bike Share, 2015).

Carsharing Bike Racks

In November 2014, car2go announced that it was installing bike racks on its vehicles as part of a pilot program in Portland, OR (Andersen, 2014).

Carsharing Parking at Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Facilities

Numerous public transit authorities, such as WMATA, have offered carsharing parking at rail stations and park-and-ride lots. WMATA began offering carsharing parking at its facilities in 2001. In May 2015, Enterprise CarShare was selected through a RFP process to provide carsharing service at 45 metro stations (Zauzmer, 2015).

Chicago’s Joint Transit Card

In 2009, the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) launched the first joint fare card in North America. The card enabled a single payment and access system for CTA buses and trains, pace buses, and IGO carsharing vehicles (Center for Neighborhood Technology, 2013).

Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) Partnership with Uber

In April 2015, DART announced a partnership that enables public transit riders to connect to Uber through the “events and offers” section of DART’s GoPass mobile ticketing application (DART, 2015). A similar partnership also exists between Uber and Atlanta’s Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (Jaffe, 2015).

Hourcar and Metro Transit Fare Integration in the Twin Cities

In September 2015, HOURCAR and Metro Transit announced a partnership allowing carsharing members to use their Go-To transit cards to access HOURCAR vehicles. The new partnership will make it more convenient for users to seamlessly connect between public transportation and carsharing (Harlow, 2015).

Kitsap Transit’s Scoot Carsharing Program

In Kitsap County, WA, the county transportation authority established SCOOT Car-Sharing, offering six vehicles. Scoot is the first public transportation operator in the United States to establish and operate its own carsharing program (Kitsap County Transit, 2013).

Loading Zones for Ridesourcing at San Jose International Airport

In October 2014, San Jose International Airport amended its commercial ground transportation rules and regulations to incorporate ridesourcing to provide for-hire vehicle services, such as UberX and Lyft, with legal access to airport loading zones (City of San Jose, 2014).

Option Zones in Portland, Oregon

Portland’s option zones identified carsharing with a tall orange pole with a bike rack to encourage links between bicycling and carsharing. The poles attach to meter heads and could be easily removed or relocated. Option zones are typically co-located in close proximity to public transit (Shaheen, Cohen, & Roberts, 2006).

Planning Processes

Local and regional governments have multiple goals in incorporating shared mobility into their transportation networks. These goals may include mitigating en-route and parking congestion, reducing VMT/VKT and vehicle ownership, improving air quality, achieving climate action targets, and providing vehicle access to underserved populations (e.g., low-income communities). Incorporating shared mobility into municipal and regional planning processes, such as land use and transportation plans, may require data to assist in forecasting the impact of shared mobility on public infrastructure. Integrating shared planning into municipal general plans and sketch planning tools can help to identify opportunities and gaps within the transportation system. Sketch planning can be used to estimate the general order-of-magnitude impacts of bikesharing, carsharing, ridesourcing, and other shared modes. Some states have ratified legislation that requires transportation land-use coordination to meet air quality and climate mitigation initiatives, such as California’s SB 375 (the Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act of 2008). Additionally, planning processes offer public agencies and local governments opportunities to solicit feedback from residents, businesses, actual and prospective users, and others impacted by shared mobility.

Public involvement is important when incorporating shared mobility into the urban environment. Public involvement can reduce opposition to shared mobility services (e.g., when converting parking spaces to carsharing or bikesharing uses) and can address concerns of impacted stakeholders (e.g., storefronts adjacent to a bikesharing kiosk or taxi drivers affected by ridesourcing). The particular method of public involvement should reflect the unique institutions and policy procedures established in each jurisdiction. Some examples of public involvement could include endorsement by neighborhood councils; a public comment, hearing, and approval process; or an appointed/elected body to develop, comment, or approve public policies. Some jurisdictions have provided city councils, public transit agencies, public utilities commissions, and parking authorities with varying degrees of authority over shared mobility. Public involvement, through regular meetings and public comment periods, has been important in exercising such authority. For example, when Washington, DC initiated its carsharing parking policy in 2005, the district adopted a policy where new carsharing parking spaces were requested by Advisory Neighborhood Councils and approved by the District’s Department of Transportation (DDOT) (Shaheen, Rodier, Murray , Cohen, & Martin, 2010). In New York City, the Department of Transportation (DOT) held 159 public presentations and demonstrations, coupled with an additional 230 meetings with elected officials, property owners, and other stakeholders to solicit public input on the design and operation of the city’s bikesharing program (New York City Department of Transportation, n.d.). As part of its outreach effort, the DOT established an online portal for the public to make station suggestions and to support already suggested kiosk locations. Finally, more than 250 organizations, community groups, and elected officials participated in 14 planning workshops for the planning and design of the Citi Bike system (New York City Department of Transportation, n.d.).

Data Sharing, Privacy, and Standardization

Public and private partnerships to standardize data, share data, and protect sensitive data can be key to understanding shared mobility’s impact on the transportation network and encourage innovation. Shared mobility operators typically track several important data points—the origin and destination of shared services (e.g., the pickup and return location for a carsharing or bikesharing vehicle or ridesourcing passenger), travel time, and trip duration. A number of shared mobility service providers have shared data with public agencies either voluntarily or as part of a regulatory mandate. For example, as part of Washington, DC’s carsharing parking initiative adopted in 2005, carsharing operators seeking on-street parking are required to provide the DDOT with quarterly data to assess the impacts of their parking program. In 2012, City CarShare voluntarily shared data with the SFMTA during the city’s SFpark pilot to assist planners and policymakers with the development of the carsharing parking policy.

In addition to this data sharing with public agencies, a number of shared mobility service providers make data publicly available for download. Bay Area Bike Share, Capital Bikeshare, and Citi Bike are a few of the operators that provide some of the most expansive publicly available data including information on trip origin and destination (location and time); rider type (e.g., the type of user pass); home zip code for annual members; the bicycle number; weather information; and bicycle/dock availability at each station. Real-time data on service availability are becoming increasingly available. Operators are making these data available on their websites and apps for users and non-users to locate services, such as available bikesharing bikes, open docks, and idle carsharing vehicles. In addition to providing these data on operator websites, the use of APIs is increasingly creating an open data infrastructure with third parties, such as aggregator and trip planning websites and smartphone apps. Uber has established an API that allows third-party app integration with other services including OpenTable, Trip Advisor, and United Airlines. In January 2015, uberX announced that it would share anonymized trip data with the City of Boston on a quarterly basis as part of the company’s new national data-sharing policy (Badger, 2015 ).

In addition to data sharing, data privacy and security remain key concerns among many shared mobility consumers. Shared mobility operators maintain highly sensitive data on their users, employees, and independent contractors, such as personally identifiable information, trip information, and financial information. In 2013, a Citi Bike software glitch mistakenly exposed sensitive personal and financial information, including credit card numbers of nearly 1,200 bikesharing users (Mann, 2013). From 2014 to 2015, a series of privacy scandals involving Uber raised awareness of data sensitivity and the importance of privacy and security among shared mobility service providers (Canedo, 2014) (Covert, 2015). In 2014, two former Uber employees leaked to the media that its corporate employees had wide access to track drivers and customers using an internal company tool known as “God View” (Canedo, 2014). In February 2015, Uber announced that a hacker had obtained names and driver’s license numbers of approximately 50,000 current and former drivers in a data breach that occurred in May 2014. Uber took responsive measures including notifying the impacted drivers and providing affected individuals with a one-year free membership in a credit monitoring service (Covert, 2015). The company views data security very seriously and has since implemented measures to ensure tighter data security, along with others in the shared mobility industry.

Finally, data standardization is critical to ensuring compatibility for a variety of uses and platforms. In November 2015, the North American Bikeshare Association announced the adoption of an open data standard, pledging to make real-time data feeds available in a standardized format so these data can be readily incorporated into smartphone applications (Fried, 2015). More industry-wide standards, either through trade associations or governmental regulation, could aid in the development of clear and consistent data formats, data sharing protocols, and privacy protections to ensure open data, interoperability, and comparability across a wide array of platforms.

Accessibility and Equity Issues

Some of the key challenges pertaining to accessibility issues are the varying requirements and what local governments, public agencies, and shared mobility providers measure. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 states that: "No person... shall, on the grounds of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance." Over the years, this definition has been expanded to include additional protected classes, such as religion, age, gender, pregnancy, citizenship, familial status, disability, and veteran status. In addition to these groups, equity issues may involve a number of other groups, such as low-income individuals and neighborhoods. Title VI was amended in 1987, extending non-discrimination requirements for recipients of federal aid to all of their programs and activities, not just programs and activities funded with federal funds. Because many shared mobility operators receive either direct monetary and non-monetary support from federally funded agencies (e.g., free or reduced cost parking from public transit agencies), the non-discrimination requirements could extend to shared mobility operators receiving such support.

As previously discussed in Chapter 3, multiple North American studies of carsharing and bikesharing users have shown that carsharing members and both long-term and short-term bikesharing users are more likely to be Caucasian, male, between the ages of 20 and 35, and well educated compared to the general population (Shaheen S. , Martin, Chan, Cohen, & Pogodzinski, 2014) (Dill, Mathez, Nathan, & Howland, 2014). In many cases, shared mobility has previously struggled to gain traction among all populations within urban service areas despite the findings of several studies that suggest that shared mobility can often enhance the mobility of disadvantaged communities through improved job access and cheaper, faster, and more available mobility.

Low-Income Access

Access to credit and debit cards by low-income users has been and continues to be a challenge for bikesharing use. In Washington, DC, Capital Bikeshare has partnered with financial institutions that allow users to establish accounts, obtain debit cards, and receive promotional gift cards to offset the cost of a bikesharing membership.

Capital Bikeshare's Bank on DC Program

A common concern among bikesharing operators and local governments is low-income access to bikesharing and the requirement to have a debit or credit card for use. In Washington, D.C., Capital Bikeshare partnered with United Bank and District Government Employees Federal Credit Union (DGEFCU) to allow users to open up a bank account and obtain a debit card. New account holders receive a $25 gift card good toward the cost of annual Capital Bikeshare membership.
Source:Capital Bikeshare, 2015

In Boston, as part of a grant to expand the city’s Hubway bikesharing system, city council members have asked city staff to create a written plan for the expansion of the system into underserved areas. In the San Francisco Bay Area, City CarShare provides a formal low-income carsharing program that includes subsidies for membership and usage fees for low- to moderate-income users. To apply for the subsidy, prospective users must be referred by one of six project partners that serve low- and moderate-income residents and clients (City CarShare, 2015).

Older Adult Mobility

City CarShare is also one of the few shared mobility providers offering services geared directly toward older adults through its partnership with NextVillage, a San Francisco-based non-profit working to enhance the mobility of older adults. NextVillage pays for a complimentary one-year carsharing membership for volunteers who donate 12 hours on a quarterly basis to drive senior citizens to appointments and errands (City CarShare, 2014).

Disability Access

Disability access is a challenge impacting shared modes. In October 2014, the Austin City Council adopted an ordinance regulating ridesourcing, which among other things mandated that ridesourcing drivers cannot refuse service or charge higher fees to disabled passengers. In Berkeley, CA, non-profit City CarShare introduced the nation’s first wheelchair accessible carsharing vehicles in 2008, known as AccessMobile. City CarShare has expanded the program to include wheelchair-accessible vans in San Francisco. In 2015, Buffalo CarShare (now Zipcar) became the second carsharing operator with a wheelchair-accessible van, after acquiring it from City CarShare (Susan Shaheen, unpublished data, 2015).
Local governments, public transportation agencies, and shared mobility providers can safeguard Title VI compliance by ensuring service access to a wide range of demographic populations (including but not limited to minorities and low-income users) and incorporating special needs and underserved populations into planning processes.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)Protections for Ridesourcing in Austin, Texas

In October 2014, the City of Austin approved an ordinance regulating ridesourcing. The ordinance specifically prohibits drivers from refusing to accept or charge higher fees to disabled passengers. Additionally, the ordinance mandates that ridesourcing must conduct outreach with low-income communities and organizations and have ADA compliant vehicles available.
Source: City of Austin, 2014


Local and regional governments play a number of roles that can impact shared mobility services-ranging from transportation policy, planning, network operations, congestion mitigation, parking management, and compliance with air quality and climate action standards. Areas that involve public policy and shared mobility include:

  • Health, Safety, and Consumer Protection
  • Taxation
  • Insurance
  • Parking and Access to Rights-of-Way
  • Signage and Advertising
  • Multimodal Integration
  • Planning Processes
  • Data Sharing, Data Privacy, and Standardization
  • Accessibility and Equity.

Public-private partnerships with local governments, public transit agencies, developers, employers, universities, and transportation management associations are crucial to the growth and success of shared mobility. Public-private partnerships can include an array of assistance ranging from financial and marketing support to providing rights-of-way and integrating shared mobility into planning processes, local ordinances, and public transit. As such, public-private partnerships can play a key role in addressing a number of policy challenges that could help to evolve shared mobility to maximize its social and environmental benefits.


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2APIs are a web programming practice that allows open sharing of content and data among data providers and applications. [ Return to note 2. ]

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