Office of Operations
21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

Efficient Use of Highway Capacity Summary
Report to Congress

List of Figures

Figure 1. Flowchart. Developing the Transportation Plan.

Figure 2. Flowchart. The Regional Context and Shoulder Use.

Figure 3. Graph. Causes of Congestion in the United States.

Figure 4. Graph. Lane Management Operational Strategies.

Figure 5. Photo. Temporary Shoulder Use—Germany.

Figure 6. Photo. Shoulder Use with Emergency Refuge Area—England.

Figure 7. Photo. Plus Lane—The Netherlands.

Figure 8. Graphic. Junction Control Schematic in Germany.

Figure 9. Photo. Bus on Shoulders—Mn/DOT (Photo courtesy of Mn/DOT).

Figure 10. Photo. Converted Shoulders on I-5—California (Photo Courtesy of CALTRANS).

Figure 11. Photo. I-66 HOV/Shoulder Lane Adaptation—Virginia (Photo Courtesy of VDOT).

Figure 12. Graphic. Open Priced Dynamic Shoulder Lane—Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Figure 13. Graphic. Closing Priced Dynamic Shoulder Lane—Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Figure 14. Graphic. Closed Priced Dynamic Shoulder Lane—Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Figure 15. Photo. Speed Harmonization—The Netherlands.

Figure 16. Photo. I-66 Regulatory Sign with Lane Control Signals (Photo Courtesy of VDOT).

Figure 17. Photo. I-66 Hours of Use Regulatory Sign (Photo Courtesy of VDOT).

Figure 18. Photo. VDOT I-66 Regulatory Signs (Photo Courtesy of VDOT).

Figure 19. Photo. Mn/DOT BOS Regulatory Sign (Photo Courtesy of Mn/DOT).

Figure 20. Graphic. Mn/DOT BOS Warning Sign (Image Courtesy of Mn/DOT).

Figure 21. Photo. Regulatory Shoulder Use Signs (Photo Courtesy of MassDOT).

Figure 22. Photo. Warning Shoulder Use Sign (Photo Courtesy of MassDOT).

Figure 23. Drawing. Shoulder Use Regulatory Sign (Drawing Courtesy of WSDOT).

Figure 24. Photo. Temporary Right Shoulder Use—The Netherlands.

Figure 25. Photo. Plus Lane in The Netherlands.

Figure 26. Photo. Speed Harmonization—The Netherlands.

Figure 27. Graph. Incident Reductions with Temporary Shoulder Use—The Netherlands.

Figure 28. Photo. Right Shoulder Use with Speed Harmonization—Germany.

Figure 29. Illustration. Temporary Hard Shoulder Use Signs—Germany.

Figure 30. Illustration. Signs and Markings for Temporary Hard Shoulder Use Continuation through Interchange—Germany.

Figure 31. Photo. Continuation of Temporary Hard Shoulder Use through an Interchange—Germany.

Figure 32. Illustration. Signs and Markings for Temporary Hard Shoulder Use Termination at Interchange—Germany.

Figure 33. Photo. Termination of Temporary Hard Shoulder Use at Interchange—Germany.

Figure 34. Graph. Speed-Volume Relationship of Temporary Shoulder Use—Germany.

Figure 35. Graph. Flow Impacts of Speed Harmonization—Germany.

Figure 36. Graph. Safety Benefits of Speed Harmonization—Germany.

Figure 37. Photo. Emergency Refuge Area on Facility with Active Traffic Management—England.

Figure 38. Photo. Emergency Call Box on Facility with Active Traffic Management—England.

Figure 39. Photo. I-66 Peak Period Shoulder Use—Virginia.

Figure 40. Photo. I-66 HOV Lanes, West of HOV/SL Portion—Virginia.

Figure 41. Photo. I-66 HOV/SL Portion—Virginia.

Figure 42. Illustration. I-66 HOV/SL Lane Plan View—Virginia.

Figure 43. Illustration. I-66 HOV/SL Typical Cross-Section—Virginia.

Figure 44. Photo. I-495, Viewing Dual Entrance Ramps from I-66—Virginia.

Figure 45. Illustration. PDSL on I-35W—Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Figure 46. Photo. Breakdown Shoulder Use on I-93—Massachusetts.

Figure 47. Photo. US 2 Shoulder Use—Everett, Washington.

Figure 48. Illustration. US 2 Trestle Original Cross-Section—Everett, Washington.

Figure 49. Illustration. US 2 Cross-Section for Shoulder Use—Everett, Washington.

List of Tables

Table 1. Shoulder Use Installation Costs—Mn/DOT.

Office of Operations