Maintain a Mix of Options – “Maintain a variety of old and advanced communications options.”
Effects of Catastrophic Events on Transportation System Management and Operations: August 2003 Northeast Blackout Great Lakes Region
Use Multiple Communications Technologies and Types – “It is crucial that agencies be able to utilize multiple technologies to communicate with staff and the public. By having a redundant set of communications technologies available, agency personnel can shift from one technology to another depending upon the emergency scenario, geography of the land, or other unforeseen outside forces. Technologies used in the four areas included landline telephones, wireless telephones, two-way radio, satellite link ups, and e-mail.
As seen in the four case studies, landline telephone communications were disrupted by the vibrations of the California earthquake and severely affected in New York City because of the location of a Verizon substation in the World Trade Center area. Overwhelming customer demand on September 11 also taxed the portions of the system that were not destroyed. The Baltimore rail tunnel contained major trunk lines of fiber optic cable, disrupting Internet communications across the country when the fire spread.”
Effects of Catastrophic Events on Transportation System Management and Operations: Cross-Cutting Study
“Ensure that an agency has multiple types of communications technology.”
Effects of Catastrophic Events on Transportation System Management and Operations: August 2003 Northeast Blackout New York City
February 7, 2006