Office of Operations
21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

1.4 Tools

The literature search identified available tools for use in evacuations and/or areas where further research and development may be useful to develop tools to respond to evacuation issues. The focus was on potential technology applications for evacuations. Tools were identified for evacuation planning, evacuation routing, identifying hazardous materials and manifest, identifying infrastructure, identifying evacuation routes, informing people of the need to evacuate, locating public bus and public bus/rail systems to be used during an evacuation, and traffic monitoring in rural areas and/or blackout areas.

During this literature search, there was no definitive article or publication that addressed evacuations from no-notice evacuation incidents. However, there are many articles and publications prepared after incidents that proved invaluable for this literature search. These documents included the Effects of Catastrophic Events on Transportation System Management and Operations Studies, the San Bernardino County Fire Chiefs’ Association: Lessons Learned Report: Fire Storm 2003: “Old Fire,” and the Southern California Firestorm 2003: Report for the Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center. Although the two wildfire reports were not written from a transportation perspective, information from the two was applicable because they required no-notice evacuations.

February 7, 2006
Publication #FHWA–HOP-08-015