Office of Operations
21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

List of Figures and Tables

List of Figures

Figure 1-1 Rochester N.Y. Regional Traffic Operations Center
Figure 1-2 Interconnected Traffic Control System Chronology
Figure 1-3 Overview Of Physical Entities
Figure 2-1 Traffic Signal
Figure 2-2 Hardware In The Loop Configuration
Figure 3-1 Time-Space Diagram Display From Synchro 4
Figure 3-2 Speed Measurements Using Presence Detectors
Figure 3-3 Headway Determination
Figure 3-4 Deterministic And Random Components When Demand Is Constant
Figure 3-5 Deterministic Component Of Volume During A.M. Peak Period
Figure 3-6 Effect Of Variation In Smoothing Coefficient On Random Component
Figure 3-7 Filter Response And Output To Deterministic Component And Error
Figure 3-8 Two-Phase Signal Sequence
Figure 3-9 Four-Phase Signal Sequence
Figure 3-10 Dual-Ring Left-Turn Phasing Options
Figure 3-11 Primary Phasing Options For 8-Phase Dual-Ring Control (Left-Turn First)
Figure 3-12 Recommended Selection Guidelines
Figure 3-13 Traffic Detection On Intersection Approach
Figure 3-14 Example Of Actuated Phase Intervals
Figure 3-15 Fundamental Attributes Of Flow At Signalized Intersections
Figure 3-16 Symbols, Definitions, And Units For Fundamental Variables Of Traffic Flow At Signalized Intersections
Figure 3-17 Cycle Length Vs. Demand For Two Phase Signal
Figure 3-18 Signal Networks
Figure 3-19 Simple Case Of Platoon Dispersion
Figure 3-20 Benefits Of Signal Coordination
Figure 3-21 Time-Space Diagram And Graphic Technique
Figure 3-22 Typical Time-Space Diagram
Figure 3-23 Closed Network Node Definitions
Figure 3-24 Principles Of The SCOOT Traffic Model
Figure 3-25 The RHODES Hierarchical Architecture
Figure 3-26 Implementation of The Rolling Horizon Approach in OPAC
Figure 3-27 Reverse Progression Signal Offset
Figure 3-28 External Metering
Figure 3-29 Relationship Between Mean Journey Speed And Number Of Vehicles On Town Centre Network
Figure 3-30 Relationship Between Mean Journey Speed Of Vehicles And Total Vehicle Mileage On Network
Figure 3-31 Example Of One Controller For Two Adjacent Intersections
Figure 3-32 Examples Of One Controller For A Diamond Interchange
Figure 3-33 Bus Priority Provision Zone
Figure 3-34 Fuel Economy As A Function Of Vehicle Speed
Figure 3-35 Time-Space Diagram For Stop And Delay Computations For Urban Street Control
Figure 3-36 Throughput And Component MOEs
Figure 4-1 INFORM (Long Island, NY) Control Center
Figure 4-2 Generalized Relationships Among Speed, Density, And Flow Rate On Uninterrupted-Flow Facilities
Figure 4-3 Freeway Management Categories
Figure 4-4 CMS On A Freeway
Figure 5-1 Diversion Advisory Message In The INFORM (Long Island, NY) Corridor
Figure 6-1 Radar Detector
Figure 6-2 Inductive Loop Detector Length For Loop Occupancy Control
Figure 6-3 Dilemma Zone For Vehicle Approaching An Intersection At 40 Mi/H (64 Km/H)
Figure 6-4 Loop Location For Extended Call-Delay Design With 55 Mi/Hr (88.6 Km/Hr) Approach Design Speed
Figure 6-5 Two Methods Of Multiple Point Detection Systems For Approach Speeds Up To 55 Mi/Hr (88.6 Km/Hr)
Figure 6-6 Contrast Between Small-Area And Large-Area Detection
Figure 6-7 Typical Detector Designs
Figure 6-8 Left-Turn Detection Inductive Loop Configuration Used By Illinois
Figure 6-9 Extended Detection On Left-Turn Lanes
Figure 7-1 Model 2070 Controller In ATC Cabinet
Figure 7-2 Three-Phase Controller Phase Sequence For Single-Ring Controller
Figure 7-3 Phase Sequence For Dual-Ring Controller
Figure 7-4 Dual-Ring Basic Phase Sequence Options
Figure 7-5 Example Of Special Phase Sequence For Conditional Service Of Left-Turn Phase
Figure 7-6 Diamond Interchange Phasing (3-Phase)
Figure 7-7 Diamond Interchange Phasing (3- And 4-Phase)
Figure 7-8 Typical Detector Configuration For 3-Phase, Lag-Lag, And 4-Phase (With Overlap) Special Sequences
Figure 7-9 Computer Controlled Diamond Interchange Operation
Figure 7-10 Single Point Urban Interchange (SPUI)
Figure 7-11 Typical SPUI 3-Phase Sequence
Figure 8-1 Traffic Management Center (TMC)
Figure 8-2 Typical Architecture For Three Computation Level Distributed (Closed Loop) System
Figure 8-3 Typical Arrangement For Central Control Architecture
Figure 9-1 Installing Communications Cable
Figure 10-1 Traveler Information Kiosk
Figure 10-2 Active Sign
Figure 10-3 Static Sign Hybrid
Figure 10-4 LED Illuminated Static Yield Sign
Figure 10-5 Illuminated Fluorescent Sign
Figure 10-6 CMS On Surface Street
Figure 11-1 Selection Of A System
Figure 11-2 "V" Representation Of The Systems Engineering Life Cycle
Figure 11-3 Relationship Of System Engineering Practices Identified In Part 940 To The System Engineering Life Cycle
Figure 11-4 Developing The Concept Of Operations
Figure 12-1 CADD Workstation And Operator
Figure 12-2 Sample Specification — System Acceptance
Figure 12-3 Example Of CPM Network Diagram
Figure 12-4 Greensboro, NC Traffic Control Project Milestone Schedule
Figure 13-1 Traffic Signal Maintenance
Figure 13-2 System Management Team Concept
Figure 13-3 Typical Daily Control And Operations Architecture
Figure 13-4 Typical Aggregate MOE Contour Timing Plan Graphic
Figure 13-5 Typical Flow Chart For System Modification And Update For Non-Adaptive Traffic Control Systems
Figure 14-1 The ITS Program Structure

List of Tables

Table 1-1 User Service Bundles And User Services
Table 1-2 Market Packages
Table 1-3 Relationship To Other FHWA Handbooks
Table 2-1 Typical System Functions
Table 2-2 Signal System Options
Table 3-1 Control Variable Definitions
Table 3-2 Traffic Data Components
Table 3-3 Signal Timing Variable Definitions
Table 3-4 Additional Left-Turn Phasing Options
Table 3-5 Vehicle Headway Data
Table 3-6 Proposed Signal Control At Specific Intersections Along Arterials
Table 3-7 Proposed Signal Control At Specific Intersections In Grid Systems
Table 3-8 Interval Settings
Table 3-9 TRANSYT Analytical Model
Table 3-10 Recommended Values Of Platoon Dispersion Factor (PDF)
Table 3-11 Directional Flow Conditions
Table 3-12 Manual Timing Plan Development
Table 3-13 Performance Categories For Traffic Control Systems
Table 3-14 Characteristics Of Traffic Signal System Performance Categories
Table 3-15 UTCS First Generation Traffic-Responsive Control Algorithm
Table 3-16 SCOOT Optimization Process
Table 3-17 Enhanced SCOOT Features
Table 3-18 SCATS Control Levels
Table 3-19 Definitions Of Lane Control Signal Displays
Table 3-20 Transportation Related SIP Requirements For Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas By Classification
Table 3-21 Passenger Car Operating Costs, United States, 2003
Table 3-22 Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities And Injuries - 1997
Table 3-23 Motor Vehicle Traffic Fatalities And Injuries By Highway Types - 1997
Table 3-24 Costs Per Accident, 2002
Table 3-25 Benefits Of Signal System Improvement
Table 3-26 Annual Benefits From Optimization On Arterial
Table 3-27 Texas TLS Program Annual Benefits And Costs
Table 3-28 Annual Benefits From Optimization On Network
Table 3-29 Seattle MMDI Evaluation: System Efficiency Impacts
Table 3-30 Seattle MMDI Evaluation: Energy And Emissions Impacts
Table 3-31 Measures Of Effectiveness (MOE)
Table 6-1 Strengths And Weaknesses Of Commercially Available Sensor Technologies
Table 6-2 Traffic Output Data (Typical), Communications Bandwidth, And Cost Of Commercially Available Sensors
Table 6-3 Detector Location And Timing Parameters
Table 6-4 Dilemma Zone Boundaries
Table 6-5 Conventional Detector-Controller Unit Configurations For High-Speed Approaches
Table 7-1 Definition Of Controller Terms
Table 7-2 Traffic Signal Controller Functions
Table 7-3 Isolated Versus Coordinated Signal Modes
Table 7-4 Types Of Signal Operation
Table 7-5 Application Of Signal Control Types
Table 7-6 Actuated Controller Definitions
Table 7-7 Actuated Controller Basic Timing Parameters
Table 7-8 Phase Sequence Options
Table 7-9 Inputs Per Phase
Table 7-10 Inputs Per Ring
Table 7-11 Inputs Per Controller Unit
Table 7-12 Special Phase Sequencing
Table 8-1 Performance Levels For Traffic Signal Systems
Table 8-2 Coordination Commands
Table 8-3 Representative Results Of Adaptive System Performance Testing
Table 8-4 Advantages And Disadvantages Of Adaptive Traffic Control Systems
Table 8-5 Comparison Of Various Traffic Signal System TMCs In The US
Table 9-1 Communications Technology Subclassifications
Table 10-1 Static Sign Use
Table 10-2 Applications Of CMS On Surface Streets
Table 10-3 Advantages And Disadvantages Of Methods Of Information Dissemination
Table 12-1 Types Of Design Plans
Table 12-2 Items In Traffic Signal Installation Specification
Table 12-3 Guidelines For Representative Sections Of Specifications
Table 12-4 Representative System Software Elements
Table 12-5 Typical Hardware Documentation Requirements
Table 13-1 Suggested Routine Operations Tasks
Table 13-2 MOE Formats
Table 13-3 Basic Staffing Skills
Table 13-4 Staffing Factors
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