Office of Operations
21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

Decision Support Framework and Parameters for Dynamic Part-Time Shoulder Use:
Considerations for Opening Freeway Shoulders for Travel as a Traffic Management Strategy


Brilon, W., Geistefeldt, J., & Regler, M. (2005). Reliability of Freeway Traffic Flow: A Stochastic Concept of Capacity. Proceedings of 16th International Symposium of Transportation and Traffic Theory, (pp. 125–144). University of Maryland, College Park.

CDOT. (2017). I-70 Mountain Express Lane Project Wins Two Awards. Retrieved from Colorado Department of Transportation:

Danish Road Directorate. (2016). Evaluation Summary of Pilot Trial with Hard Shoulder Running on the Hillerod Motorway. Vejdirektoratet, Danish Road Directorate.

Davis, G. (2017). Safety Impacts of the I-35W Improvements Done Under Minnesota's Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) Project. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Department of Transportation.

Drolenga, J. (2015). Differentiatie Verkeersveiligheid Spitsstroken. Grontmij.

EasyWay. (2015). Traffic Management Services: Hard Shoulder Running Deployment Guideline. European Union, Trans-European Transport Network.

Elefteriadou, L. (2014). An Introduction to Traffic Flow Theory.

Elefteriadou, L., & Lertworawanich, P. (2003). Defining, Measuring and Estimating Freeway Capacity. 82nd Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting. Washington D.C.

Elefteriadou, L., Kondyli, A., Brilon, W., Jacobson, L., Hall , F., & Persaud, B. (2009). Proactive Ramp Management Under the Threat of Freeway-Flow Breakdown, NCHRP 3-87. Washington D.C.: Transportation Research Board.

Elefteriadou, L., Roger, P. R., & William, R. M. (1995). Probabilistic Nature of Breakdown at Freeway Merge Junctions. Transportation Research Record: Journal of Transportation Research Board, 80–89.

FGSV. (2015). Handbuch fuer die Bemessung von Strassenverkehrsanlagen - HBS 2015 (German Highway Capacity Manual). Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Strassen - und Verkehrswesen, Cologne.

Geistefeldt, J. (2012). Operational Experience with Temporary Hard Shoulder Running in Germany. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2278, 66–73.

Geistefeldt, J. (2016). Assessment of Basic Freeway Segments in the German Highway Capacity Manual HBS 2015 and Beyond. International Synposium on Enhancing Highway Performance.

Hanson, B., & Westby, K. (2017, September). I-405 Peak-Use Shoulder Lane — Project Overview. Retrieved from Washington Department of Transportation, NoCoE Webinar.

HCM6. (2016). Highway Capacity Manual 6th Edition: A Guide for Multimodal Mobility Analysis. Transportation Research Board.

Jenior, P., Dowling, R., Nevers, B., & Neudorff, L. (2016). Use of Freeway Shoulders for Travel — Guide for Planning, Evaluating, and Designing Part-Time Shoulder Use as a Traffic Management Strategy. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration.

Jones, J. C., Knopp, M. C., Fitzpatrick, K., & et. al. (2011). Freeway Geometric Design for Active Traffic Management in Europe. Washington D.C.: U.S. Department of Transortation, Federal Highway Administration.

Kaplan, E., & Meier, P. (1958). Non-Parametric Estimation From Incomplete Observations. Journal of American Statistical Association, 457–481.

Lee, J. T., Dittberner, R., & Sripathi, H. (2012). Safety Impacts of Freeway Managed-Lane Strategy: Inside Lane for High-Occupancy Vehicle Use and Right Shoulder Lane as Travel Lane During Peak Periods. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board.

Rijkswaterstaat. (2007). Evaluation of the Effect of Rush-Hour Lanes on Road Safety. Center for Transport and Navigation.

Suliman, K. (2017). Part-time Shoulder Use VA-267, I-495, I-66. Retrieved from Virginia Department of Transportation, Part-time Shoulder TRB Webinar:

Trask, J. L., Schroeder, B., Nevers, B. 2018. Probe Data Analysis Tool: Summary of Case Studies. Memo Prepared for FHWA.

Office of Operations