Office of Operations
21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

Decision Support Framework and Parameters for Dynamic Part-Time Shoulder Use:
Considerations for Opening Freeway Shoulders for Travel as a Traffic Management Strategy

Technical Report Documentation Form

1. Report No.


2. Government Accession No.


3. Recipient's Catalog No.

4. Title and Subtitle

Considerations for Opening Freeway Shoulders for Travel as a Traffic Management Strategy

5. Report Date

November 2019

6. Performing Organization Code

7. Author(s)

Jenior, P., Schroeder, B., Dowling, R. (Kittelson & Associates, Inc.); Geistefeldt, J. (Ruhr-Universität Bochum); Hale, D. (Leidos)

8. Performing Organization Report No.

21855 (Kittelson)

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

11251 Roger Bacon Dr.
Reston, VA 20190

Kittelson & Associates Inc.
300 M Street SE, Suite 810
Washington, DC 20001

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.

Contract No. DTFH61-16-D-00053

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

Federal Highway Administration
Office of Innovative Program Delivery
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Technical Report, September 2017 through May 2019

14. Sponsoring Agency Code


15. Supplementary Notes

Jim Hunt ( served as the Government Task Manager. The report's authors were supported by Anusha Musunuru, J Lake Trask, Burak Cesme, and Anxi Jia, all of Kittelson & Associates, Inc.

16. Abstract

Dynamic part-time shoulder use (D-PTSU) opens shoulders for travel beyond fixed (or static) time periods (e.g., weekday peak periods). Dynamically operating the transportation system by matching supply-side strategies in accordance with prevailing conditions and travel demands represents an important advancement in agency adoption of Active Transportation and Demand Management (ATDM) concepts. This report provides agencies with relevant information and best practices for operating D-PTSU on freeways. The report explains how the opening of PTSU can be optimized based on speed and volume conditions observed or modeled on the freeway. Methods for determining specific "decision parameters" for opening the shoulder are presented. The report also assists agencies in determining if D-PTSU is an appropriate strategy where no part-time shoulder use is in place, or where static part-time shoulder use is in place.

17. Key Words

Part-time Shoulder Use, Hard Shoulder Running, Active Traffic Management, Transportation Systems Management and Operations, Freeway

18. Distribution Statement

No restrictions.

19. Security Classification (of this report)


20. Security Classification (of this page)


21. No of Pages


22. Price


Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72)
Reproduction of completed page authorized.
Office of Operations