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21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

Effects on Intelligent Transportation Systems Planning and Deployment in a Connected Vehicle Environment

Chapter 2. Intelligent Transportation System Categories and Services

The project identified Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) categories as defined by the U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) for the development of ITS architectures. Additional categories were considered to include a broad spectrum of ITS categories and address developments. Each category contains a number of services that were examined in detail. The U.S. DOT Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office (ITS JPO) Web page was consulted to provide commonly used definitions of the services considered. The following categories are detailed in this chapter:

  • Traveler information.
  • Freeway management.
  • Arterial management.
  • Archived data management.
  • Public transportation.
  • Emergency management strategies.
  • Construction and maintenance management strategies.
  • Other traffic management.
  • Vehicle safety.
  • Connected vehicle technology.

Traveler Information

Traveler information systems refer to strategies designed to inform transportation users of various aspects important for their trip. Traveler information systems encompass a wide variety of transportation modes and types of users, providing descriptive data of the transportation system, which could assist the user to select their mode of travel, route, trip time, or destination. These systems may provide static data, such as maps and touristic information; or dynamic data, often relying in road surveillance equipment or information from probe vehicles. Different media is used to publish and distribute such information, from roadside equipment to personal communication devices. Traveler information systems include the following services:

  • Broadcast Travel Information—This service includes information provided using broadcasting technology, such as radio broadcasts, cellular data, and Internet Web casts.
  • Interactive Traveler Information—This service includes information provided to users based on a user-selected request.
  • Autonomous Route Guidance—This service includes information on route planning and guidance based on static stored information.
  • Dynamic Route Guidance—This service includes information consisting of advanced route planning and guidance responsive to real-time conditions.
  • ISP-Based Trip Planning and Route Guidance—Trip planning and route guidance information provided by the Information Service Provider (ISP), which may include a variety of modes and transportation services.
  • Transportation Operations Data Sharing—This service makes real-time transportation operations data available to transportation system operators.
  • Traveler Service Information and Reservation—This service provides information and allows users to plan and reserve transportation services.
  • Dynamic Ridesharing—This service enables dynamic ride sharing and ride matching services to users.
  • In-Vehicle Guidance—This service augments regulatory, warning, and informational signs and signals by providing information directly to drivers through in-vehicle devices.

Freeway Management and Arterial Management

Freeway management includes systems and services designed to optimize traffic flow and safety on limited access roadways. ITS resources are the focus of this and include Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras, vehicle detection systems, ramp meters, service patrols and traffic management staff and software. Arterial management strategies are designed to improve traffic flow and safety along arterial roadways. In some areas, major arterials may be linked to the freeway management system and be equipped with CCTVs and Dynamic Message Signs (DMS). Specific services reviewed for this project include:

  • Traffic Probe Surveillance—This service includes the collection of data from vehicles in order to determine vehicle speeds and to detect incidents.
  • Ramp Metering—This service uses signals at freeway ramp entrances to control flow on to the roadway.
  • High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane Management>—This service includes lanes dedicated, usually at peak hours, to high-occupancy vehicles that include carpools, vanpools, buses and taxis, and in some areas electric vehicles. High-Occupancy Tolled (HOT) lanes allow single-occupancy vehicles to use HOV lanes if they pay a toll.
  • Traveler information Dissemination—This service uses DMS, Highway Advisory Radio (HAR) and 511 telephone services provide current information on travel conditions to freeway users. In-vehicle navigation and smartphone applications now provide an increasing amount of this information to users.
  • Traffic Incident Management—This service includes surveillance and traffic detection technology, along with Traffic Management Center (TMC) operators, and software to quickly detect incidents. There is close coordination with first responders through communications sharing or co-location of traffic operations and first responder personnel. Service patrols support first responders in responding to incidents and restoring traffic flow, reducing congestion and secondary crashes.
  • Reversible Lane Management—ITS technologies are used to manage reversible lanes that are used to expedite traffic flow where peak hour traffic is highly directional.
  • Speed Warning and Enforcement—This service includes warning systems that can detect vehicles entering a curve or sensitive area (school zone) at too high a speed and warn motorists to slow down. Automated enforcement is not as widely adopted due to privacy concerns.
  • Dynamic Roadway Warnings—This service includes systems similar to speed warnings but refer to unanticipated events such as roadway obstacles or incidents. Connected Vehicle (CV) technology provides a method of passing information upstream from one vehicle to another, rather than relying on broadcast or signing. This technology is still under development in the standards arena.
  • Variable Speed Limits—This service uses dynamic roadside or overhead signs as a way to smooth traffic flow and slow traffic down during bad weather or construction. Signs now used along the roadway to accomplish this could be replaced with CV technology, providing the ability to target vehicle speeds more specifically.
  • Dynamic Lane Management and Shoulder Use—Dynamic lane management and shoulder use are methods of increasing freeway capacity without major capital investment. Agencies often limit these strategies to peak hours. CV technology provides the potential for managing these.
  • Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) Road User Payment—This service seeks to facilitate charging fees to roadway vehicle owners for using specific roadways with potentially differential payment rates based on time-of-day, which specific roadway is used, and class of vehicle (a local policy decision by each roadway owner). This strategy would help reduce congestion by charging users of a congested network a price close to the real cost of using it, which includes environmental and other externalities implied in the use of the network during congested periods.
  • Mixed Use Warning Systems—This service supports the sensing and warning systems used to interact with pedestrians, bicyclists, and other vehicles that operate on the main vehicle roadways, or on pathways which intersect the main vehicle roadways. These systems could allow automated warning or active protection for this class of users.
  • Network Surveillance—This service refers to the use of information from traffic surveillance equipment, like traffic detectors or other surveillance equipment. This information enables TMCs to monitor traffic and road conditions, manage incidents, and optimize network operations.
  • Traffic Signal Control—This service refers to the operation of traffic control equipment in signalized intersections, including monitoring equipment and communication solutions. All control strategies are also considered in this ITS solution, from fixed signal timings to dynamic responsive [adaptive] systems.
  • Regional Traffic Management—Regional traffic management refers to the process of data sharing among traffic management centers in a region, to optimize network operations along local jurisdictions, and often considers the integration of freeway operations and corridor signal controls. The overall goal of this strategy is to further enhance traffic operations at a larger geographic scale, often resulting in better traffic conditions systemwide. This is widely used during major incidents, special events, and extreme weather conditions.
  • Transportation Decision Support and Demand Management—This service considers different operational strategies and response plans based on real-time network performance. Incident response and congestion management recommendations often consider the integration of transit, parking, and toll strategies. More advanced versions of this may include predictive analysis of traffic conditions to manage the roadway network and to optimize the incident response and track its effects.
  • Emissions Monitoring and Management—This service refers to monitoring activities of air quality and emissions through distributed sensors. The information collected can be used to implement a specific demand management strategy, or promote environmentally sensitive policies and regulations.
  • Roadway Closures Management—This service refers to roadway closures due to maintenance, unsafe traffic conditions, or other scenarios [e.g. weather] where traffic must be prohibited. There is a close relation with Traveler Information Systems, as these are often used to alert users of closures and provide alternatives for travel.

Archived Data Management

Archived data management systems refer to infrastructure and system architecture that enables transportation agencies to collect, archive, query, and share transportation data. With a growing number of data sources available, data management has become a growing ITS category among transportation management agencies. Furthermore, with the advent of CV, the ability to collect and use real-time data increases significantly. The services described are considered for this project. It should be noted that FHWA does not endorse any specific products, services, or enterprises. Products and manufacturers' names appear in this document because they are considered essential to the objective of the report. They are included for informational purposes only and are not intended to reflect a preference, approval, or endorsement of any one product or entity.

  • ITS Data Mart—This service focuses on data collection by a single agency, private sector provider, or other related organization. The data collected often focuses on data exclusive for a single transportation mode.
  • ITS Data Warehouse—This service refers to the management of integrated data sources and agencies, providing accessibility to data across modes and jurisdictions. This service often handles a large amount of data, which could include the utilization of shared servers and storage facilities. The data warehouse is often managed by a lead agency, supervising that data is being integrated according to the expected format and quality, and controlling accessibility to the information.
  • ITS Virtual Data Warehouse—This service relates to similar services provided by ITS Data Warehouses, but provides this access using enhanced interoperability between physically distributed ITS archives that are each locally managed. The U.S. DOT is developing a Situation Data Warehouse for CV collected data (such as basic safety messages, or BSM), and dynamic data distribution services for the real-time distribution of CV collected data. These are being developed by the U.S. DOT and will be used by the Wyoming and Tampa pilot programs.

Public Transportation

This ITS category encompasses ITS solutions for public transportation services.

  • Transit Vehicle Tracking—This service refers to the monitoring of transit vehicle location, often through Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) technology. Vehicle position may be determined through Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment or through beacons and equipment along the transit routes. Location data can be very useful for transit agencies, as they can use it to optimize schedule operations and provide reliable information to users.
  • Transit Fixed-Route Operations—This service refers to the management of transit operations, often through Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) technology, which relies on vehicle location data and enables communication between transit dispatch and operators. This solution allows the optimization of scheduling activities including the creation of schedules, blocks and runs, as well as operator assignments. Traveler information can also be provided, allowing users to have accurate and reliable trip information.
  • Demand Response Transit Operations—This service enables the operation of flexible-route transit, or paratransit services, which are dispatched based on demand needs. This package monitors the current status of the transit fleet and supports allocation of these fleet resources to incoming requests for paratransit service while also considering traffic conditions.
  • Transit Fare Collection Management—This service manages transit fare collection on-board transit vehicles and at transit stops using electronic means. It allows transit users to use a traveler card or other electronic payment device.
  • Transit Security—This service refers to the operation of equipment and sensors for monitoring and surveillance of transit passengers' safety. The surveillance equipment includes video and/or audio systems. The sensor equipment includes threat sensors and object detection sensors as described above as well as, intrusion or motion detection sensors and infrastructure integrity monitoring.
  • Transit Fleet Management—This service supports automatic transit maintenance scheduling and monitoring. On-board condition sensors monitor system status and transmit critical status information to the transit agency, enabling preventative and corrective maintenance scheduling.
  • Multimodal Coordination—This service enables communication between multiple transit and traffic agencies, often seeking to improve operation efficiencies for users, making services more reliable.
  • Transit Traveler Information—This service allows transit users at stops and on vehicles to access transit information. The information provided includes transit stop annunciation, imminent arrival signs, and real-time transit schedule. Systems that provide custom transit trip itineraries and other tailored transit information are also represented in this service.
  • Transit Signal Priority—This service enables the communication between transit vehicles and traffic control operations, to give them priority when they reach the intersection. The coordination between traffic and transit agencies seeks to improve on-time performance of the transit system to the extent that this can be accommodated without degrading overall performance of the traffic network.
  • Passenger Counting—This ITS solution seeks to count the number of passengers entering and exiting a transit vehicle using sensors mounted on the vehicle and communicates the collected passenger data back to the operations center.
  • Multimodal Connection Protection—This service package supports the coordination of multimodal services to optimize the travel time of travelers as they move from mode to mode (or to different routes within a single mode).

Emergency Management Strategies

This ITS category focuses on using ITS solutions to allow the application of response plans to emergency events. The following services were considered for this project:

  • Emergency Call-Taking and Dispatch—This service provides basic public safety call-taking and dispatch services. It includes emergency vehicle equipment, equipment used to receive and route emergency calls, and wireless communications that enable safe and rapid deployment of appropriate resources to an emergency.
  • Emergency Routing—This service enables more efficient emergency strategies by incorporating automated vehicle location and dynamic routing of emergency vehicles to enhance emergency vehicle routing. Integration with control strategies can also be included to improve the safety and time-efficiency of responding vehicle travel on the selected routes.
  • Mayday and Alarms Support—This service allows all type of users to initiate a request for emergency assistance and allows the agency responsible for emergency management to gather information about the incident, and determine the appropriate response. The request for assistance may be manually initiated or automated and linked to vehicle sensors.
  • Roadway Service Patrols—This service supports roadway service patrol vehicles that monitor roads that aid motorists, offering rapid response to minor incidents (flat tire, incidents, out of gas) to minimize disruption to the traffic stream.
  • Transportation Infrastructure Protection—This service includes the monitoring of transportation infrastructure (e.g., bridges, tunnels and management centers) for potential threats using sensors and surveillance equipment, seeking to mitigate the impact of an incident if it occurs. Threats considered include natural incidents (e.g., hurricanes, earthquakes), terrorist attacks, or other incidents causing damage to the infrastructure (e.g., stray barge hitting a bridge support.)
  • Wide-Area Alert—This service uses ITS to alert the public in emergency situations such as child abductions, severe weather events, civil emergencies, and other situations that pose a threat to life and property. The alert includes information and instructions for transportation system operators and the traveling public, improving public safety and enlisting the public's help in some scenarios.
  • Early Warning System—This ITS service monitors and detects potential, looming, and actual disasters including natural disasters (hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, winter storms, tsunamis, etc.) and technological and man-made disasters (hazardous materials incidents, nuclear power plant accidents, and acts of terrorism including nuclear, chemical, biological, and radiological weapons attacks).
  • Disaster Response and Recovery—This service enhances the ability of the surface transportation system to respond to and recover from disasters. It addresses the most severe incidents that require an extraordinary response from outside the local community.
  • Evacuation and Reentry Management—This service supports evacuation of the general public from a disaster area and manages subsequent reentry to the area. This solution addresses evacuations for all types of disasters, including disasters like hurricanes that are anticipated and occur slowly, allowing a well-planned orderly evacuation, as well as disasters like terrorist acts that occur rapidly, without warning, and allow little or no time for preparation or public warning.
  • Disaster Traveler Information—This service uses ITS to provide disaster-related traveler information to the general public, including evacuation and reentry messages and other information concerning the operation of the transportation system during a disaster. This solution collects information from multiple sources including traffic, transit, public safety, emergency management, shelters, and travel service organizations. The collected information is processed and the public is equipped with real-time disaster and evacuation awareness using ITS traveler information systems.

Construction and Maintenance Management Strategies

This category relates to strategies and operation changes agencies need to consider for construction and maintenance activities. The following services were considered for this project:

  • Maintenance and Construction Vehicle and Equipment Tracking—This service tracks the location of maintenance and construction vehicles and other equipment to ascertain the progress of their activities. These activities can include ensuring the correct roads are being plowed and work activity is being performed at the correct locations.
  • Maintenance and Construction Vehicle Maintenance—This service performs vehicle maintenance scheduling and manages both routine and corrective maintenance activities on vehicles and other maintenance and construction equipment. Data to develop these schedules include on-board equipment and sensors.
  • Road Weather Data Collection—This service collects current road and weather conditions through environmental sensors deployed on and about the roadway or transportation network considered. Data is collected via fixed sensor stations at the roadside or equipped vehicles.
  • Weather Information Processing and Distribution—This service uses the environmental data collected to detect environmental hazards such as icy road conditions, high winds, dense fog, so system operators and decision support systems can make decision on corrective actions to take.
  • Roadway Automated Treatment—This service automatically treats a roadway section based on environmental or atmospheric conditions. Treatments include fog dispersion and anti-icing chemicals.
  • Winter Maintenance—This service relates to winter road maintenance including snow plow operations, roadway treatments (e.g., salt spraying and other anti-icing material applications), and other snow and ice control activities.
  • Roadway Maintenance and Construction—This service supports numerous services for scheduled and unscheduled maintenance and construction on a roadway system or right-of-way.
  • Work Zone Management—This service manages work zones, controlling traffic in areas of the roadway where maintenance, construction, and utility work activities are underway. This service provides control of field equipment in all maintenance and construction areas, including fixed, portable, and truck-mounted devices supporting both stationary and mobile work zones.
  • Work Zone Safety Monitoring—This service includes systems that improve work crew safety and reduce collisions between the motoring public and maintenance and construction vehicles. The service detects vehicle intrusions in work zones and warns crew workers and drivers of imminent encroachment or other potential safety hazards.
  • Maintenance and Construction Activity Coordination—This service supports the dissemination of maintenance and construction activity to centers that can utilize it as part of their operations.
  • Environmental Probe Surveillance—This service collects data from vehicles in the road network that can be used to directly measure or infer current environmental conditions. It leverages vehicle on-board systems that measure temperature, sense current weather conditions (rain and sun sensors) and also can monitor aspects of the vehicle operational status (e.g., use of headlights, wipers, and traction control system) to gather information about local environmental conditions.
  • Infrastructure Monitoring—This service package monitors the condition of pavement, bridges, tunnels, associated hardware, and other transportation-related infrastructure (e.g., culverts) using both fixed and vehicle-based infrastructure monitoring sensors.

Other Traffic Management

This category seeks to include some ITS services that can be considered in multiple or other categories, and which have an important effect on transportation networks. The following services were considered for this category:

  • Electronic Toll Collection—This service provides toll operators with the ability to collect tolls electronically and detect and process violations. The fees that are collected may be adjusted to implement demand management strategies.
  • Roadside Lighting System Control—This service includes systems that manage electrical lighting systems by monitoring operational conditions and using the lighting controls to vary the amount of light provided along the roadside.
  • Standard Railroad Grade Crossing—This service manages highway traffic at Highway-Rail Intersections (HRI) where operational requirements do not dictate more advanced features (e.g., where rail operational speeds are less than 80 miles per hour).
  • Advanced Railroad Grade Crossing—This service manages highway traffic at HRIs where operational requirements demand advanced features (e.g., where rail operational speeds are greater than 80 miles per hour).
  • Railroad Operations Coordination—This service provides an additional level of strategic coordination between freight rail operations and traffic management centers. Rail operations provide train schedules, maintenance schedules, and any other forecast events that will result in HRI closures. This information is used in advanced traffic control strategies or to enhance the quality of traveler information.
  • Parking Facility Management—This service provides enhanced monitoring and management of parking facilities. It assists in the management of parking operations, coordinates with transportation authorities, and supports the electronic collection of parking fees.
  • Regional Parking Management—This service supports communication and coordination between equipped parking facilities and also supports the regional coordination between parking facilities and traffic and transit management systems.
  • Drawbridge Management—This service supports systems that manage drawbridges at rivers and canals and other multimodal crossings (other than railroad grade crossings). The equipment managed by this service includes control devices (e.g., gates, warning lights, dynamic message signs) at the drawbridge as well as the information systems that are used to keep travelers apprised of current and forecasted drawbridge status.

Vehicle Safety

This category refers to on-board vehicle ITS solutions that seek to enhance safety and vehicle control for better driving. The following services were considered for this project:

  • Vehicle Safety Monitoring—This service provides a diagnosis of critical components of the vehicle and warn the driver of potential dangers. On-board sensors determine the vehicle's condition, performance, on-board safety data, and display information.
  • Driver Safety Monitoring—Similar to vehicle safety monitoring, but for drivers, this service will determine the driver's condition, and warn the driver of potential dangers. On-board sensors determine the driver's condition, performance, on-board safety data, and display information.
  • Longitudinal Safety Warning—This service utilizes safety sensors and collision sensors to monitor the areas in front of and behind the vehicle and present warnings to the driver about potential threats/hazards.
  • Lateral Safety Warning—This service utilizes safety sensors and collision sensors to monitor the areas to the sides of the vehicle and present warnings to the driver about potential threats/hazards.
  • Intersection Safety Warning—This service monitors vehicles approaching an intersection and warns drivers when hazardous conditions are detected. Among the hazards detected are impending violations (e.g., red-light violations) and potential conflicts between vehicles occupying or approaching the intersection. When a potentially hazardous condition is detected, a warning is communicated to the involved vehicles using short range communications and/or signs/signals in the intersection.
  • Pre-Crash Restraint Deployment—This service uses in-vehicle sensors and on-board communications to monitor the vehicle's local environment, determine collision probability and deploy a pre-crash safety system. It will exchange messages with other equipped vehicles to determine the precise location of surrounding vehicles and deploy a pre-crash safety system when a crash is imminent.
  • Driver Visibility Improvement—This service seeks to enhance driver visibility using an enhanced vision system.
  • Advanced Vehicle Longitudinal Control—This service automates the speed and headway control functions on board the vehicle. It utilizes safety sensors and collision sensors combined with vehicle dynamics processing to control the throttle and brakes. It requires on-board sensors to measure longitudinal gaps and a processor for controlling the vehicle speed.
  • Advance Vehicle Lateral Control—This service automates the steering control on board the vehicle. It utilizes safety sensors and collision sensors combined with vehicle dynamics processing to control the steering. It requires on-board sensors to measure lane position and lateral deviations and a processor for controlling the vehicle steering.
  • Intersection Collision Avoidance—This service determines the probability of an intersection collision and provides timely warnings to approaching vehicles so that avoidance actions can be taken. Information from in-vehicle sensors and roadside equipment is used to develop control actions which alter the vehicle's speed and steering control and potentially activate its pre-crash safety system.
  • Automated Vehicle Operations—This service enables "hands-off" operation of the vehicle on automated portions of the highway system. Implementation requires lateral lane holding, vehicle speed and steering control. Communications between vehicles and between the vehicles and supporting infrastructure equipment supports cooperative check-in to the automated portion of the system and transition to automated mode, coordination of maneuvers between vehicles in automated mode, and checkout from the automated system as the driver resumes control of the vehicle.
  • Cooperative Vehicle Safety Systems—This service enhances the on-board longitudinal and lateral warning stand-alone systems by exchanging messages with other surrounding vehicles and roadside equipment. Vehicles send out information concerning their location, speed, and direction to surrounding vehicles. The roadside equipment provides information about potential safety hazards in the vehicle path such as stalled (unequipped) vehicles, wrong-way drivers, debris, or water hazards. The on-board systems can then process this information and present warnings to the driver including headway warnings, merge warnings, unsafe passing warnings, and warnings about hazards detected in the vehicle path. Special messages from approaching emergency vehicles may also be received and processed.

Connected Vehicle Technology

The final category includes topics found in research related to complimentary ITS applications intrinsic to CV technology. CV has the potential to transform ITS operations in other modes of transportation, like powered two-wheeled vehicles and pedestrians, as well as enhance ITS solutions based on technology interoperability. The following services were included among research terms analyzed for this purpose:

  • Traffic Operations—This service focuses on determining further impacts CV may present to traffic operation in general. Among the services considered were traffic monitoring, road pricing systems, speed harmonization, queue warning, eco-friendly signal operations, traffic enforcement, and even on-demand lighting.
  • Cooperation/Automation—This service relates to the interconnectivity between CV and Automated Vehicle (AV). Research in this area has focused on determining how CV capabilities can benefit AV through enhanced communication, such as dynamic routing; collaborative merging strategies; effects of autonomous vehicles on traffic signals; and cooperative and adaptive speed harmonization.
  • Other Modes of Transportation—This service focuses on the impact of CV on other modes of transportation, particularly for commercial vehicles, powered two-wheelers, pedestrians and bicycles.
  • Connectivity and Modeling—An area that has been the focus of significant research is the connectivity issues among CV. This service relates to technical-specific issues in current research, seeking to determine shared use of the 5.9 GHz spectrum transmission interference levels through test-beds and simulators.
  • Other Technologies Related to CVThis service seeks to analyze the research made relating to the application of technology to enable CV. Communication technologies include radio connectivity, dedicated short-range communications (DSRC), Wi-Fi, infrared, radar, Bluetooth, fourth-generation (4G), and fifth-generation (5G) connectivity.
  • Safety Enhancements—This service seeks to describe CV capabilities that can improve safety significantly. The services considered with the potential to enhance safety include: collision avoidance systems (such as in-vehicle crash warning systems), improved alert notifications (focusing on minimizing possible driver distraction), and enhanced awareness of roadside vulnerable users (like roadway workers or pedestrians).
  • ITS Interoperability—CV capabilities were not only found related to safety, but to a variety of ITS applications. Articles were found discussing the interoperability of ITS applications with CV, ultimately enhancing their performance. Among the technologies analyzed include vehicle location, electronic toll collection, and payment systems.
  • Information Collection and Dissemination—Another recurrent topic found was the ability to collect and send data through CV technologies. The service considered for this topic focuses on deciding the frameworks used to collect a vehicle's trip information (like origins and destinations), as well as receiving information (like speed warnings and pre-defined routes), primarily through in-vehicle devices. The availability of data is subject to high levels of privacy controls and will require secure systems for transfer, use, and retention.
  • Planning and Regulation—This service considers impacts on agencies' planning and regulation procedures. Transportation planning efforts will increasingly need to anticipate and address the impacts of CV. CV will likely be a part of a wide variety of planning functions including long-range plans, improvement programs and capital plans, asset management plans, operations, safety plans, and a variety of modal planning. Among the services considered include strategies that can be implemented at different geographic levels.
  • Funding—Another source of support may be public/private partnerships, including relationships with data service providers and commercial application developers. State agencies may be able to charge for private use arrangements, which are subject to 23 U.S.C. 156.
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