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Guidebook for State, Regional, and Local Governments on Addressing Potential Equity Impacts of Road Pricing

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Appendix C: Bibliography

407 ETR. "407 Express Toll Route" [All electronic tolling; Ontario].

Algers, S., K. Brundell Freij, et al. "The Stockholm Congestion Charging Trial—What Happened?"

Altshuler, A., "Equity, Pricing, and Surface Transportation Politics" Paper commissioned for Transportation Research Board Special Report 303. 2010.

Anderson, D., and H. Mohring. "Congestion Costs and Congestion Pricing." In The Full Costs and Benefits of Transportation: Contributions to Theory, Method and Measurement (J. D. Greene, D. W. Jones, and M. A. Delucchi, eds.) New York: Springer 1997.

Bagley, C. "Durham Voters Approve Sales Tax Increase for Transit." Triangle Business Journal. The Business Journals Digital Network. November 9, 2011.

Baker, R., et al. "Moving Beyond Lexus Lanes: Equity Considerations for Managed Lanes." Transportation Research Board 87th Annual Meeting, 2008.  

Bayles, F. "Toll Lanes: A Freer Ride, for a Price." USA Today, April 9, 2004.

Berg, J., K. Bhatt, and T. Higgins T. Value Pricing Pilot Program: Lessons Learned Final Report (KTA & CSI, 2008).

Boehm, E. "Tolls Would Subsidize Rail Line along Route 422,"" Daily Local News : Serving Chester County. September 19, 2011.

Bonsall, P., and C. Kelly. "Road User Charging and Social Exclusion: The Impact of Congestion Charges on At-Risk Groups." Transport Policy, Vol. 12, No. 5, 2005, pp. 406–18.

Bork, R., and M. Wrede. "Political economy of commuting subsidies." Journal of Urban Economics No. 57, 2005, pp. 478–99.

Burris, M., and R. Hannay. "Equity Analysis of the Houston Quickride Project." Transportation Research Record 1859. March 2003.,%20TEXAS,%20QUICKRIDE%20PROJECT.pdf

Burt, M., G. Sowell, J. Crawford, and T. Carlson. Synthesis of Congestion Pricing-Related Environmental Impact Analyses – Final Report. 2010.

Carlson, D., Z. Howard. Impacts of VMT Reduction Strategies on Selected Areas and Groups. Washington State Department of Transportation, 2010.

Committee on the Equity of Transportation Finance Mechanisms. Equity of Evolving Transportation Finance Mechanisms,Transportation Research Board Special Report 303 (August 2011).

DeCorla-Souza, P., "Fair Highway Networks: A New Approach to Eliminate Congestion on Metropolitan Freeways," Public Works Management and Policy, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2005, pp. 196–205.

DeCorla-Souza, P. "Improving Metropolitan Transportation Efficiency with Fast Miles." Journal of PublicTransportation, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2006, pp. 45–70.

E-470 Public Highway Authority." E-470."

Ecola, L., and T. Light. Equity and Congestion Pricing: A Review of the Evidence RAND, 2009.

Eichler, M. D., G. K. Miller, and J. Park. Evaluating Alternative Scenarios for a Network of Variably Priced Highway Lanes in the Metropolitan Washington Region—Final Report February 2008.

Land Transport Authority of Singapore. "Electronic Road Pricing."

Ennis, M. "Using Drivers' Tolls to Subsidize Light Rail across the Columbia River Is Wrong." Washington Policy Center. March 13, 2011.

FHWA. Income-Based Equity Impacts of Congestion Pricing: A Primer. 2009.

FHWA. Potential Impact of Exempt Vehicles on HOV Lanes. "Chapter Four—HOV Exemptions for Law Enforcement and Public Transportation Vehicles." FHWA-HOP-05-058. August 2005.

FHWA. "The Role of Fast and Intertwined Regular (FAIR) Lanes in the New York Metropolitan Region." Conference proceedings. 2002.

FHWA Office of Innovative Program Delivery. "Project Profiles: Indiana Toll Road."

FHWA Office of Innovative Program Delivery. "Project Profiles: New-Build Facilities."

FHWA and TxDOT, "Joint Guidance for Project and Network Level Environmental Justice, Regional Network Land Use, and Air Quality Analyses for Toll Roads," April 23, 2009. [Obtained by email between Anita Wilson and Patrick DeCorla-Souza, FHWA]

Florida's Turnpike Enterprise. "All-Electronic Open Road Tolling."

Franklin, J. "The Equity Effects of Roadway Tolls: An Application of Hicksian Welfare Measures with Income Effects." Conference Paper Workshop 2.4. Proc., International Conference on Travel Behaviour Research, Kyoto, Japan, Aug. 16–20, 2006.

Fridström, L., H. Minken, P. Moilanen, S. Shepherd, and A. Vold. Economic and Equity Effects of Marginal Cost Pricing in Transport: Case Studies from Three European Cities. Technical Report. Helsinki, Finland: Government Institute for Economic Research, 2000.

Giuliano, G., et al. Pricing & Social Equity: Road Pricing & Barriers to Social Inclusion. USC SPPD Keston Institute, April 16. 2010.

Glaister, S. "National Road Pricing: Policy Design and Public Acceptance." Paper presented at International Trade Center–Co-Ordination of Urban Road-User Charging Organizational Issues, 2007.

Glaister, S., and D. Graham. "An Evaluation of National Road User Charging in England." Transportation Research Part A, Vol. 39, 2005, pp. 632–50.

Gomez-Ibanez, J. A. "The Political Economy of Highway Tolls and Congestion Pricing." Transportation Quarterly XLVI, No. 2, July 1992.

Gonzales, E.J. "Efficiency and Equity of Pricing Strategies for Cars and Transit." Presentation at TRB Annual Meeting. January 2012.

Goodin, G., R. Poole, C. Fuhs, J. Tsien, and J. Lee. I-405/SR 167 Corridor Tolling Study Expert Review Panel Final Report. December 2010.

Goodwin, P. "The Rule of Three: A Possible Solution to the Political Problem of Competing Objectives for Road Pricing." Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol. 30, No. 10, 1989, pp. 495–97.

Gutierrez, S. "Good to Go! Electronic Toll Passes for SR 520 Now Available." Blogs - February 15, 2011.

Hamer, P., Currie, G., Young, W. "Equity Implications of Parking Taxes." Presentation at TRB Annual Meeting 2012. January 2012.

Hirsch, J. "Solo Drivers of Low-emission Autos Fume over Fees to Use Carpool Lanes." The Los Angeles Times, September 14, 2011.

ICF International. Environmental Justice in Transportation: Emerging Trends and Best Practices. FHWA. 2011.

Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds. "Coordination of Urban Road User Charging Organisational Issues." State of the Art Review." May 2009.

Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds. "Equity." State of the Art Review. April 1, 2006.

Leromonachou, P., S. Potter, and J. P. Warren. "Norway's Urban Toll Rings: Evolving Towards Congestion Charging?" Transport Policy, Vol. 13, No. 5, September 2006, pp. 367–78.

Institute of Environmental Management and Assessment. Low Emission Zones for Italy and Germany. January 2, 2008.

Johnson, G. "Mass. Senate OKs Transportation Bill That Includes Sales Tax Increase, No Toll or Gas Tax Increase" June 18, 2009.

Johnston, R. A., and C. J. Rodier. "Synergisms Among Land Use, Transit, and Travel Pricing Policies." Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1670, 1999, pp. 3–7.

King County Metro Transit. "King County Park & Ride Lot Information." February 23, 2011.

King, D. A. "Remediating Inequity in Transportation Finance." Paper commissioned for Transportation Research Board Special Report 303. 2009.

King, D. A., M. Manville, and D. Shoup. "For Whom the Road Tolls." Access (University of California Transportation Center) No. 31, 2007.

King, D. A., M. Manville, and D. Shoup. "The Political Calculus of Congestion Pricing." Transport Policy. Vol. 14, No. 2, March 2007, pp. 111–23.

Klein, D. B., and G. J. Fielding. "Private Toll Roads: Learning from the 19th Century." Transportation Quarterly. Vol. 46, No. 3, July 1992, pp. 321–41.

Kockelman, K. M., and S. Kalmanje. "Credit-Based Congestion Pricing: A Policy Proposal and the Public's Response." Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 39, No. 7–9, August–November 2005.

K.T. Analytics and Cambridge Systematics. Value Pricing Pilot Program: Lessons Learned. FHWA. August 2008.

Lam, T. C., and K. A. Small. "The Value of Time and Reliability: Measurement from a Value Pricing Experiment." Transportation Research Part E, Vol. 37, No. 2–3,2001, pp. 231–51.

Larsen, L., Burris, M., et al. "Equity Evaluation of Vehicle Miles Traveled Fees in Texas." Presentation at TRB Annual Meeting 2012. January 2012.

Levinson, D. "Equity Effects of Road Pricing: A Review." Transport Reviews. Vo. 30, No. 1, 2010, pp. 33—57.

Litman, T. Changing Vehicle Travel Price Sensitivities: The Rebounding Rebound Effect. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. 2010.

Litman, T. "Evaluating Transportation Equity." World Transport Policy & Practice, Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer 2002, pp. 50–65. Updated version (May 2011).

Litman, T. "Park & Ride." Online TDM Encyclopedia. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. January 26, 2010.

Litman, T. "Road Pricing-Congestion Pricing, Value Pricing, Toll Roads, and HOT Lanes." Online TDM Encyclopedia. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. June 9, 2011.

Litman, T. Smart Transportation Investments: Reevaluating the Role of Highway Expansion for Improving Urban Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. October 1, 2006.

Litman, T. Transportation Affordability: Evaluation and Improvement Strategies. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. 2011.

Litman, T. Using Road Pricing Revenue: Economic Efficiency and Equity Considerations. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. February 2010.

Litman, T., and M. Brenman. A New Social Equity Agenda for Sustainable Transportation. Victoria Transport Policy Institute. March 2011.

Lloyd, G. "Voters to Decide on Sales Tax." The Chronicle. Duke University. (n.d.)

Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority in partnership with the California Department of Transportation. Los Angeles Region Express Lanes Project: AB 1467 Application. March 2008.

Los Angeles Metro. "Park & Ride Lots."

Maruyama, T., and A. Sumalee. "Efficiency and Equity Comparison of Cordon- and Area-Based Road Pricing Schemes Using A Trip-Chain Equilibrium Model." Transportation Research Part A, Vol. 41, No. 7, 2007, pp. 655–71.

Maryland DOT State Highway Administration. The Intercounty Connector.

Miami-Dade Expressway Authority. MDXWay.

Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. "Park and Ride Lot Locations." Commuter Connections.

Mitchell, G. "Forecasting Environmental Equity: Air Quality Responses to Road User Charging in Leeds, UK." Journal of Environmental Management. Vol. 77, No. 3, 2005, pp. 212–26.

Mohring, H. "Congestion." In Essays in Transportation Economics and Policy: A Handbook in Honor of John R. Meyer (J. Gomez-Ibanez, W. Tye and C. Winston, eds.) Washington, DC: Brookings InstitutionPress, 1999, pp. 181–222.

Munnich, L. W., Jr., and K. R. Buckeye. "I-394 MnPASS High-Occupancy Toll Lanes, Planning and Operational Issues and Outcomes (Lessons Learned in Year 1)." Transportation Research Record No. 1996: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2007.

Nakamura, K., and K. Kockelman. "Congestion Pricing and Roadspace Rationing: An Application to the San Francisco Bay Bridge Corridor." Transportation Research Part A, Vol. 36, No. 5, 2002, pp. 403–17.

New York City Traffic Congestion Mitigation Commission. Report to the Traffic Congestion Mitigation Commission & Recommended Implementation Plan. January 2008.

North Texas Tollway Authority. "Cashless Tolling (all-ETC)."

North Texas Tollway Authority. "Open for Business: Sam Rayburn Tollway & Dallas North Tollway Interchange 'Making Travel Better.'"

Office of Policy and Governmental Affairs. "Project Descriptions." FHWA. April 5, 2011.

Parkany, E. "Environmental Justice Issues Related to Transponder Ownership and Road Pricing." Transportation Research Record, a Journal of the Transportation Research Board 1932, 2005, pp. 97–108.

Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., et al. "HOT Credit Lanes Feasibility Study." Alameda County Congestion Management Agency, August 2005.

The Pennsylvania Turnpike. "All Electronic Tolling (AET)-How Does It Work?" AET Feasibility Study.

The Pennsylvania Turnpike. "Welcome to E-ZPass on the Pennsylvania Turnpike."

Plotnick, R., J. Romich, and J. Thacker. The Impacts of Tolling on Low-Income Persons in the Puget Sound Region. University of Washington. April 2009.

Private communication with MacGregor, M. Texas Department of Transportation, CDA/Tollway Director, 2009.

Progress Project. "Trondheim (Norway)."

Pucher, J., and J. L. Renne. "Socioeconomics of Urban Travel: Evidence from the 2001 NHTS." Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 57, No. 3, Summer 2003, pp. 49–77.

Riverside County Transportation Commission. "SR-91 Project." SR-91 Corridor Improvement Project.

Robinson, G., R. Kuzmyak, and T. Sanchez. Filling the Gap: Environmental Justice in Transportation Toolkit. Federal Transit Administration, May 2007.

Rodier, C., J. E. Abraham, B.N. Dix, and J.D. Hunt. Equity Analysis of Land Use and Transport Plans Using an Integrated Spatial Model, Report 09-08. Mineta Transportation Institute, 2010.

Rosenbloom, S. "The Equity Implications of Financing the Nation's Surface Transportation System." TR News, No. 261, March–April 2009, pp. 3–9.

Safirova, E., K. Gillingham, I Parry, et al. Welfare and Distributional Effects of Road Pricing Schemes for Metropolitan Washington, DC. October 2003.

San Francisco County Transportation Authority. San Francisco Mobility, Access and Pricing Study: Final Report. December 2010.

San Francisco Department of Public Health, Program on Health Equity and Sustainability. Assessing the Health Impacts of Road Pricing Policy Proposals, 2010.

Santos, G., and G. Fraser. "Road pricing: lessons from London." Economic Policy. Vol. 21, Is. 46, 2006, pp. 263–310.;jsessionid=3BA0639AA164C0DF2E3A66008BFDD0B8.d02t01

Schweitzer, L. "The Empirical Research on the Social Equity of Gas Taxes, Emissions Fees, and Congestion Charges." Paper commissioned for Transportation Research Board Committee Special Report 303. 2009.

Schweitzer, L., and B. Taylor. "Just Pricing: The Distributional Effects Of Congestion Pricing And Sales Taxes." Transportation, Vol. 35, No. 6, 2008, pp. 797–812.

Seattle Department of Transportation. Seattle Variable Tolling Study. May 2009.

Skyway Concession Company." Chicago Skyway." Chicago Skyway. 2005.

Small, K., "Using the Revenues from Congestion Pricing." Transportation, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1992, pp. 359-381.

Sound Transit." Sound Transit Capital Projects."

Space Coast Area Transit.

Steininger, K., B. Friedl, and B. Gebetsroither. "Sustainability Impacts of Car Road Pricing: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis for Austria." Ecological Economics, Vol. 63, No. 1, 2007, pp. 59–69.

Stevens, M. "Possible Sales Tax Increase to Help Fund Public Transportation." November 22, 2011.

"The Stockholm Trials 22 August 2005 – 31 July 2006." Stockholmsförsöket.

Sullivan, E. Continuation Study to Evaluate the Impacts of the SR-91 Value-Priced Lanes: Final Report. Cal Poly State University-San Luis Obispo, December 2000.

Swan, P. F., and M. H. Belzer. "Empirical Evidence of Toll Road Traffic Diversion and Implications for Highway Infrastructure Privatization." Public Works Management and Policy. Vol. 14, No. 4, 2010, pp. 351–73.

Tampa-Hillsborough Expressway Authority. Selmon Expressway.

Taylor, B.D. How Fair is Road Pricing? Evaluating Equity in Transportation Pricing and Finance. UCLA Institute of Transportation Studies, September 2010.

Teubel, U. "The Welfare Effects and Distributional Impacts of Road User Charges on Commuters—An Empirical Analysis of Dresden." International Journal of Transport Economics. Vol. 27, 2000, pp. 231–55.

Texas Transportation Institute with assistance from Cambridge Systematics. "Background Paper #4: Equity, Fairness, and Uniformity in Tolling." Washington State Comprehensive Tolling Study, Final Report, Volume 2. September 2006.

Toups,  D. T., San Diego Association of Governments. FasTrak Study—Follow-Up Questions. E-mail to Liisa Ecola, December 18, 2008.

Transit for Livable Communities. "Most Regions Fund Transit with Sales Tax." A Transit for Livable Communities Policy Brief. April 2009.

Transport for London. "Discounts and Exemptions."

Turnbell, M. "Florida Drivers Can Use Cash Now to Reload SunPass Transponders." The Sun Sentinel. June 27, 2010.

Ungemah, D.H., "This Land Is Your Land, This Land Is My Land: Addressing Equity and Fairness in Tolling and Pricing." Transportation Research Record. Vol. 2013, 2007, pp. 13–20.

Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Evaluating Pricing Strategies: Factors To Consider When Evaluating TDM Strategies That Change Transportation Prices. Victoria, B.C.: Victoria Transport Policy Institute, May 2010.

Virginia Tech Facilities Services. "Alternative Transportation." 2010.

Washington State Department of Transportation, Eight-Month Performance Summary of SR 167 High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lanes Pilot Project. January 2008.

Wear, B. "Central Texas toll roads need more state subsidies than expected." The Austin-American Statesman. July 18, 2011.

Weinstein, A., and G. C. Sciara. Assessing the Equity Implications of HOT Lanes: A Report Prepared for the Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority. San Jose State University and University of California Berkeley. November 2004.

Weinstein, A., and G. C. Sciara. "Unraveling Equity in HOT Lane Planning: A View from Practice." Journal of Planning Education and Research. No. 26, 2006, pp. 174–184.

West, S. "The Incidence of Public Finance Schemes." Paper commissioned for Transportation Research Board Committee Special Report 303. 2009.

The Leadership Conference Education Fund, Where We Need to Go: A Civil Rights Roadmap for Transportation Equity. March 2011.

Whitty, J., and B. Imholt. Oregon's Mileage Fee Concept and Road User Fee Pilot Program: Report to the 73rd Oregon Legislative Assembly on Proposed Alternatives to the Current System of Taxing Highway Use Through Motor Vehicle Fuel Taxes. Salem: Oregon Legislative Assembly,2005.

Zhang, L., D. Levinson, and S. Zhu. "Agent-Based Model of Price Competition, Capacity Choice, and Product Differentiation on Congested Networks." Journal of Transport Economics and Policy. Vol. 42, No. 3, 2008, pp. 435–61.

Zhang, L., B. S. McMullen, D. Valluri, and K. Nakahara. The Short- and Long-Run Impacts of Vehicle Mileage Fee on Income and Spatial Equity. March 2009.