Office of Operations
21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

Evacuating Populations With Special Needs

Routes to Effective Evacuation Planning Primer Series

Annex 6: References and Resources


American Correctional Association.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Emergency Preparedness Atlas: US Nursing Home and Hospital Facilities.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Nursing Homes in Public Health Emergencies: Special Needs and Potential Roles.

Americans with Disabilities Act 1990.

American Red Cross, Disaster Preparedness for People with Disabilities Brochure, Washington, DC, American Red Cross.

American Red Cross, “”

American Military University.

American Veterinary Medical Association, US Pet Ownership and Demographics Sourcebook, 2002.

Animal Welfare Act, 1966.

American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

Federal Highway Administration, Batelle, Managing Pedestrians during Evacuation of Metropolitan Areas, Washington, DC, 2007.

Berber et al, “Lessons Learned from Hurricane Andrew: Recommendations for the Care of the Elderly in Long-Term Care Facilities”, Southern Medical Journal, Journal of the Southern Medical Association, Volume 88, Number 5, Birmingham, Alabama, Southern Medical Association, June 1995, p. 603-608.

Boorstein, Michelle, “Fairfax Rehearses Evacuation of Jail,” The Washington Post, June 6, 2004, p. C08.

Byrnes, Michael, and Davis, Elizabeth, “Preparedness for All: Why Including People with Disabilities in Drills is a Learning Tool: Interagency Chemical Exercise (I.C.E),” International Association of Emergency Managers Bulletin, April vol. 22 (4) 7-8, 2005.

California Independent Living Council, “The Impact of Southern California Wildfires on People with Disabilities,” 2004.

Kailes, June Isaacson, Evacuation Preparedness: Taking Responsibility for Your Safety: A Guide for People with Disabilities and Other Activity Limitations, Pomona, CA, Center for Disability Issues and the Health Professions, Western University of Health Sciences, 2002.

Code 3 Associates.

Consortium for Citizens with Disabilities’ Emergency Management (CCDEM) Task Force, Association of University Centers on Disability, September 21, 2006.

Davis, Elizabeth, “Emergency Evacuation: Safe Egress of Persons with Disabilities from Transit Systems,” Washington DC, National Organization on Disability/Easter Seals, 2004.

Davis, Elizabeth, and Sutherland, Daniel, “It’s the Law: Preparedness and People with Disabilities,” International Association of Emergency Managers Bulletin, vol. 22 (3), March 13-14, 2005.

Disability Rights Section, Civil Rights Division, US Department of Justice and ADA. Making Community Emergency Preparedness and Response Programs Accessible to People with Disabilities, Washington DC, GAO.

Federal Emergency Management Agency, A Reference Guide for Accommodating Individuals with Disabilities in the Provision of Disaster Mass Care, Housing and Human Services.

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Emergency Management Institute (EMI), Evacuation and Re-entry Planning (G-358), 2006.

Federal Emergency Management Agency, EMI, Hurricane Readiness for Coastal Communities (G-363), 2006.

Interim Emergency Management Planning Guide for Special Need Populations (Version 1.0).

Federal Emergency Management Agency, EMI, IS-111: Livestock in Disaster Training Course.

Federal Emergency Management Agency, EMI, Special Needs Populations and Emergency Management (G-197), 1997.

Federal Interagency Forum on Aging Related Statistics, retrieved May 4, 2005.

Federal Emergency Management Agency/American Red Cross, Disaster Preparedness for People with Disabilities.

Federal Emergency Management Agency, Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (P.L. 93-288, as amended).

Fernandez, L., et al, “Frail Elderly as Disaster Victims,” Prehospital Disaster Medicine, 17, 2, p. 67-74, 2002.

General Accounting Office, Disaster Preparedness:  Preliminary Observations on the Evacuation of Vulnerable Populations Due to Hurricanes and Other Events, GAO Report #06-790, 2006. S. 3678--109th Congress, Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act, (database of federal legislation), 2006. S. 3721--109th Congress, Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006, (database of federal legislation), 2006.

Harvard School of Public Health. “Hurricane Readiness in High-Risk Areas,” (PowerPoint presentation), Slide 1, 2007.

Humane Society of the United States.

Humane Society of the United States, “No Pet Left Behind: The PETS Act Calls for Disaster Plans to Include Animals.”

Irvine, Leslie, “Providing for Pets during Disaster: An Exploratory Study,” Quick Response Report QR171, Boulder, Colorado, Natural Hazards Research Center, University of Colorado, 2004.

Jefferson Parish Evacuation Re-entry Plan, May 10, 2007.

Johnson, Neil, “State Fine-Tunes Evacuation Plan,” The Tampa Tribune, May 19, 2007, Retrieved August 24, 2007.

Kailes, J., Evacuation Preparedness: Taking Responsibility for Your Safety: A Guide for People with Disabilities and Other Activity Limitations, Pomona, CA, Center for Disability Issues and the Health Profession, Western University of Health Sciences, 2002.

Kirkpatrick, D. et al, “Hurricane Emergency Planning by Home Health Providers Serving the Poor,” Journal of Health Care for Poor and Underserved 18, p. 299-314, 2007.

Landers,Mary, “Transportation a Weak Link in Nursing Home Evacuations,” Savannah Morning News, June 24, 2007.

Leonard, H.A., and Scammon, D.L., “No Pets Left Behind: Accommodating Pets in Emergency Planning,” Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, Spring 2007, vol. 26, Issue 1, p. 49, 2007.

Lindell, M., and Perry, R., Communicating Risk to Multi-Ethnic Communities, Newbury Park, CA, Sage, 2004.

Litman, Todd, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, “Lessons from Katrina and Rita: What Major Disasters Can Teach Transportation Planners,” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 132, p. 11-18, January 2006.

Louisiana State University Emergency Animal Shelter Disaster Response Manual.

McGinness, Katherine, and Associates, Inc., MBTA Equal Access to Safe Egress, Waltham, MA, undated manuscript.

McGuire, L., et al, “Natural Disasters and Older US Adults with Disabilities:  Implications for Evacuation,” Disasters 31, 1, p. 49-56, 2007.

Metz, W., et al, “Identifying Special Needs Populations That Require Assistance for Emergency Planning,” International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters 20, 2, p. 255-281, 2002.

Mileti, D., Disasters by Design, Washington, DC, Joseph Henry Press, 1999.

Minneapolis Bridge Collapse Provides Early Test of Wi-Fi Network,” Government Technology, August 7, 2007.

Missouri Department of Transportation, News on Wheels, December 2005.

Monmouth County Sheriff’s Office, “Sheriff’s Office Tests Emergency Procedures with Jail Evacuation Exercise,” 2007, Retrieved August 24, 2007.

National Council on Disability, “The Needs of People with Psychiatric Disabilities During and After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Position Paper and Recommendations,” 2006.

National Coalition for the Homeless (NCH), How Many People Experience Homelessness? NCH Fact Sheet #2, 2007, Retrieved August 25, 2007.

National Fire Protection Association, Emergency Evacuation Planning Guide for People with Disabilities, 2007.

National Institute of Corrections.

National Institute of Corrections (USDOJ), Proceedings of the Large Jail Network Meeting, Washington, DC, National Institute of Corrections, 2004, Retrieved August 24, 2007.

National Institutes of Health, Medline Plus.

National Sheriff’s Association.

National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR), Assessing the Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Persons with Disabilities.

National Organization on Disability, Emergency Preparedness Initiative.

National Organization on Disability, S.N.A.K.E. Report: Special Needs Assessment of Katrina Evacuees, 2005.

National Organization on Disability, Emergency Preparedness Initiative: Guide on the Special Needs of People with Disabilities for Emergency Managers, Planners and Responders, 2nd Edition, Washington DC, National Organization on Disability, 2004.

National Research Council, Alerting America, Washington DC, National Academies, 2002.

Office of the Press Secretary, Executive Order 13347: Individuals with Disabilities in Emergencies, July 22, 2004.

Palm Beach County Board of County Commissioners, Disabled Transportation Assistance Program for Hurricane Evacuations, Palm Beach, Florida.

Office of the White House, The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned, Washington, DC, 2006.

Oklahoma’s Assistive Technology Program, Oklahoma ABLE Tech, Fire Safety Solutions Grant Etiquette Guide.

Older Americans Act 1965.

O’Shaughnessy, C., Older Americans Act: Disaster Assistance for Older Persons After Hurricane Katrina, Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, 2005.

Oxley, Joseph W., “NSA WMD Initiative Complements Monmouth County Terrorism Efforts,” Sheriff 55(5): 36, 2004.

PETS Act, Public Law 109-308, “Pets Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act of 2006,” October 6, 2006.

Pierson, Jeffrey L., “New Jersey Jail Benefits from Emergency Evacuation Exercise,” Corrections Today 65(4): 86-89, 2003.

Pinellas County, FL, Homeless Evacuation/Sheltering Plan, 2006, Retrieved August 25, 2007.

Phillips, B., and B. Morrow, “Social Science Research Needs:  A Focus on Vulnerable Populations, Forecasting, and Warnings,” Natural Hazards Review 8, 3, p. 61-68, 2007.

Polk County Wisconsin Administration, County Emergency Plans—Jail, Policy 501.G. 09-18-01, Retrieved August 24, 2007.

Rosenketter, M., et al, “Perceptions of Older Adults Regarding Evacuation in the Event of a Natural Disaster,” Public Health Nursing 24, 2, p. 160-168, 2007.

Schmid, R, “US Must Prepare for Growing Disabled Population, Study Says,” Orlando Sentinel, April 25, 2007.

Schwartz, Jeffrey A., and Cynthia Berry, A Guide to Preparing for and Responding to Prison Emergencies: Self-Audit Checklists, National Survey Results, Resource Materials, Case Studies, Washington, DC, National Institute of Corrections, 2005, Retrieved August 24, 2007.

Schwartz, Robert M., Examination of the American Red Cross and FEMA following Hurricanes Charley and Ivan, Quick Response Research Report 179, Boulder, CO, University of Colorado Natural Hazards Center, 2005.

Spence, P. et al, “Media Use and Information-Seeking Needs of the Disabled During a Natural Disaster,” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 18, p. 394-404, 2007.

State of Florida Regional Evacuation Procedure.

State of Florida Department of Elder Affairs, Disaster Preparedness Guide, 2006.

State of Florida, Governor’s Hurricane Evacuation Task Force Final Report, (originally retrieved from currently inactive Web site), Chapter 4.

State of Kentucky, H.B. 258, Chapter 69, General Assembly, Commonwealth of Kentucky, 2006 Regular Session, House Bill 258 as Enacted March 17, 2006. An ACT related to the evacuation and relocation of prisoners in jails and regional jails, Retrieved August 24, 2007.

State of Maine Animal Response Team, County Template: Animal Disaster Response and Protection Plan.

State of Texas, Final Report to the Governor: Task Force on Evacuation, Transportation and Logistics, 2006.

Stofle, Corine, “Behind Bars,” Government Technology, May 9, 2007, Retrieved August 24, 2007.

Transit Cooperative Research Program, Public Transportation Emergency Mobilization and Emergency Operations Guide, Public Transportation Security, Volume 7.

Tierney, K., Presentation remarks, As summarized in Alerting America, National Research Council, Washington DC, National Academies, 2002.

Tierney, K. et al, Facing the Unexpected, Washington DC, Joseph Henry Press, 2001.

Tokesky, G.M., and Weston, M., Impacts and Contributions of Older Persons in Emergency Situations: A Case Study of Hurricane Katrina in the United States of America, 2006.

Topsail Beach, NC, Hurricane Evacuation and Re-Entry Guidelines.

Town of Fort Myers Beach, “Evacuation and Re-Entry Guidelines,” Fort Myers Beach, FL.

Urbina, Elba Alicia, “A State-of-the-Art Review of Hurricane Evacuation Plans and Policies,” Master’s Thesis, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, 2002.

US Department of Health and Human Services, “Dealing with Disability: Tips for First Responders,” Retrieved August 10, 2007.

US Department of Homeland Security, Office of State and Local Government Coordination and Preparedness, Homeland Security Target Capabilities List 1.1, 2005.

US Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, Nursing Home Emergency Preparedness and Response During Recent Hurricanes, Retrieved August 2006.

US Department of Homeland Security, Working Conference on Emergency Preparedness Functional Needs Planning, Washington DC, 2006.

US Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2007: H.R. 5441 [109th].

US Department of Homeland Security, Nationwide Plan Review: Phase 2 Report, Washington, DC, GAO, 2006.

US Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Commonly Asked Questions About Service Animals in Places of Business, 1996.

US Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Disability Rights Section, ADA Business Brief, 2002.

US Department of Transportation, Checklist for Transportation and Emergency Preparedness.

US Department of Transportation, Civil Rights.

US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Using Highways During Evacuation Operations for Events with Advance Notice, Washington, DC, US DOT, 2007.

US Department of Transportation, National ITS Architecture Team, Disaster Response and Evacuation User Service, 2003.

US Department of Transportation, US Department of Homeland Security, Catastrophic Hurricane Evacuation Plan Evaluation: A Report to Congress, Washington, DC, US DOT, 2006.

US Department of Transportation, National Consortium on the Coordination of Human Services Transportation, Strategies in Emergency Preparedness for Transit-Dependent Populations.

US House of Representatives, Pets Evacuation and Transportation Standards Act, 2005.

Van Willigen, M., et al, “Riding out the Storm:  Experiences of the Physically Disabled during Hurricanes Bonnie, Dennis and Floyd,” Natural Hazards Review 3, 3, p. 98-106, 2002.

Washington Post, Kaiser Family Foundation, Harvard University, Survey of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees, 2005.

White, Glen W., et al, “Assessing the Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Persons with Disabilities,” 2007.

Wise Research Ltd/Using RFID, “Texas to Use RFID to Manage Citizen Evacuations.” December 11, 2007.

Wolshon, Brian, et al, “Review of Policies and Practices for Hurricane Evacuation: I Transportation Planning, Preparedness, and Response; II Traffic Operations, Management and Control,” Natural Hazards Review, August 2005, p. 143-161.


Correctional Facility Information

Disability and Aging Information (Background, Planning and Preparedness)

Emergency Evacuation and Congregate Care Facilities

Institutional Planning

  • National Organization on Disability’s Emergency Preparedness Initiative: Guide on the Special Needs of People with Disabilities for Emergency Managers, Planners & Responders
  • Easter Seals s.a.f.e.t.y. first: Working Together for Safer Communities: Easter Seals will provide the project materials for this workplace evacuation and safety measures planning.
  • Job Accommodation Network—a service of the Office of Disability Employment Policy of the US Department of Labor—will provide a document for employee emergency evacuation and also provide free guidance recommendations about workplace evacuation plans customized for a specific employee’s special need.
    • Emergency Planning and Special Needs Populations G197 (offered via SEMO Training Office)
    • Emergency Procedures for Employees with Disabilities in Office Occupancies (publication FA-154)
    • Orientation Manual for First Responders on the Evacuation of People with Disabilities (publication FA-235).
  • US Access Board has posted its agency’s own planning methodology and plan criteria as an example as well as provided guidance on the structural requirements under the ADA pertaining to evacuation.
  • US Department of Justice: provide guidance about basic areas of emergency preparedness and response, which must be accessible to people with disabilities as developed and implemented by local authorities.
  • US Health and Human Services and Department of Homeland Security 2006 Conference: Working Conference on Emergency Management and Individuals with Disabilities and the Elderly, has many resources, presentations, and information on special needs issues and emergency management.

Individual Planning Level

  • National Organization on Disability’s Emergency Preparedness Initiative is a repository of continuously updated information for both the disability community and the emergency professional.
  • FEMA in coordination with the ARC has published many documents for individual disaster preparedness. Those most helpful for people with special needs are listed and may be obtained from your local Red Cross chapter or the FEMA Distribution Center 1-800-480-2520 or; alternate formats are also available.
    • Disaster Preparedness for People with Disabilities (ARC—5091)
    • Preparing for Disaster for People with Disabilities and other Special Needs (FEMA 476 A 4497) Note: replaces ARC—A4497
    • Disaster Preparedness for Seniors by Seniors (ARC—A5059)
    • Your Family Disaster Plan (FEMA/ARC—A4466)
    • Your Family Disaster Supply Kit (FEMA/ARC—4463).
  • Center for Disability Issues and the Health Professions: Emergency Evacuation Preparedness: Taking Responsibility for Your Safety—A Guide for People with Disabilities and Other Activity Limitations.
  • Prepare Now is a California site but links information about disaster preparedness for specific special needs.
  • Three city agencies (New York City Office of Emergency Management, Department for the Aging, and the Mayor’s Office for People with Disabilities) sponsored the publication of New York City’s Guide to Emergency Preparedness for Seniors and People with Disabilities.
  • is a comprehensive general emergency planning site maintained by the federal government and the DHS.
  • is one of several free sign-up services that will forward customized geographic emergency information to subscribers via e-mail or alpha pager systems as the information breaks.
  • National Fire Protection Association: Emergency evacuation planning guide for persons with disabilities.

Transportation (Information and Planning)

Pet and Animal Preparedness