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21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

TRAFFIC INCIDENT MANAGEMENT RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

3.0 THE MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH IN TIM RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

Under a multidisciplinary approach, efficient and effective traffic incident management (TIM) resource management relies upon the utilization of appropriate:

  • Personnel who are best qualified (i.e., capable but not over-qualified) for the various tasks. This, in turn, allows alternately skilled personnel to focus on other incident management functions. For example, the use of transportation personnel to manage traffic at and around the incident scene would relieve law enforcement personnel from this duty and allow them to perform other tasks for which they are trained (i.e., crash investigation).
  • Equipment by function (i.e., use of the least costly equipment capable of performing the function). For example, a higher level of efficiency and equal or higher effectiveness may be obtained by using a transportation vehicle equipped with an arrow board and additional traffic control devices to protect the scene rather than law enforcement or fire and rescue vehicles.
  • Technology capable of supporting various on-site resource tasks. For example, use of responsive traffic signal control plans to manage traffic at and around the incident scene would relieve law enforcement personnel from this duty and allow them to perform other tasks for which they are trained (i.e., crash investigation).

In addition, TIM resource management efficiency and effectiveness relies upon a reduction in overall resources required through reduced redundancy across disciplines.

This chapter describes a general framework for implementing a multidisciplinary TIM resource management approach into practice and provides various functional examples of opportunities for enhancing TIM resource management efficiency and effectiveness throughout the TIM process. In each case, resulting cost savings and efficiencies are dependent upon the ability to mobilize alternative personnel, equipment, and technology resources in a timely fashion.

Implementation Framework

Multidisciplinary TIM resource management, as with multidisciplinary TIM operations, is based on an understanding among responders of each others' roles, responsibilities, and capabilities. The more closely agencies work together, the more they discover how they can mutually accomplish their objectives as they respond to incidents and concurrently enhance the efficient and effective use of resources utilized at the incident scene.

At the most basic level, public agency operations personnel can begin to affect efficient and effective resource management on a per-incident basis. Where formal multidisciplinary TIM operation plans exist, existing policies and procedures can be reviewed with enhanced TIM resource management in mind. For example, multidisciplinary responders may consider whether:

  • Personnel who are best qualified (i.e., capable but not over-qualified) for the various tasks are currently utilized in those roles;
  • The least costly equipment capable of performing the function is currently utilized;
  • The use of technology is fully exploited to support various on-site tasks; and
  • Any unnecessary duplication in resources is occurring.

If resource-related inefficiencies are identified in current TIM operations, appropriate revisions to formal multidisciplinary TIM operation plans, based on enhanced TIM resource management, will facilitate direct implementation into practice.

If these revisions to operations entail extensive policy or procedural changes or involve the sharing or exchange of various equipment or technologies, formal multidisciplinary agreements (i.e., Memoranda of Understanding or Agreement) may be required to facilitate implementation. These actions may require higher-level management and administrative support from multiple public agencies, particularly if funding is requested for additional equipment or technologies. Public agency management and administrative personnel serve to benefit by identifying, promoting, and demonstrating efficient and effective resource management within their respective agencies and among government agencies within their jurisdictions.

Similar to the Unified Command concept in TIM operations—where a single point of contact is responsible for the overall handling of the incident and decisions regarding specific actions by responding agencies are made through consultation with supervisors from other responding agencies—a similar structure may be required to facilitate decision making among public agencies under a multidisciplinary TIM resource management approach. Metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) may provide a unique opportunity to support a broader multi-disciplinary approach to TIM beyond the current focus on operations through their distinctive role in facilitating regional planning and programming decisions, providing a forum for cooperative decision-making, working towards regional consensus, developing regional and institutional agreements, serving as a repository for comprehensive data, etc. Nearly 400 MPOs currently exist in the United States (U.S.); concentrated in urban areas with populations greater than 50,000. In recent years, MPOs have been encouraged to assume a greater and more consistent role in a broader range of activities, including resource management and TIM; and have noted that more effort needs to be made to support emergency response/management agencies in helping them achieve their goals.

Functional Examples

With little practical evidence of enhanced TIM resource management efficiency and effectiveness, various hypothetical examples are provided below to demonstrate the potential for improvements in TIM resource management through the use of appropriate personnel, equipment, and technology for select functions performed during the traffic incident management process. Functions or tasks that are believed to benefit most from enhanced TIM resource management include the following:

  • Motorist assistance,
  • Dispatch and response,
  • Scene protection,
  • Temporary traffic control,
  • Detour management,
  • Firefighting,
  • Minor spill mitigation and cleanup,
  • Crash investigation,
  • Victim relocation, and
  • Vehicle or debris removal.

Three decision factors support the inclusion of these TIM functions:

  1. Commonalities in responder competencies, identified by the National Traffic Incident Management Coalition (NTIMC) and observed in practice, suggest that responders from multiple disciplines be trained, to some extent, to perform a particular function;
  2. Practice suggests that more than one type of equipment is interchangeably used for a particular function, and/or
  3. Technology has been developed specifically to perform a particular function currently supported by other resources.

Specific opportunities to “exchange” higher cost personnel or equipment for lower cost, equally effective resources or technology are described for select functional areas below and summarized in Table 1. This list is not fully comprehensive; public agencies are encouraged to be creative when considering additional opportunities for enhancing TIM resource management.

Table 1. Appropriate Personnel, Equipment, and Technology for Select Functions

Functions Personnel Equipment Technology

Motorist Assistance

  • Transportation (dedicated)

Transportation vehicle (dedicated)

 

Dispatch and Response

   
  • Closed-circuit television
  • Automatic vehicle location/ geographic information systems
  • Traffic signal priority systems

Scene Protection

 
  • Transportation vehicle/arrow board
  • Traffic control devices
  • Portable intrusion alarm systems

Temporary Traffic Control

  • Transportation
  • Transportation vehicle/arrow board
  • Traffic control devices
  • Variable message signs
 

Detour Management

  • Transportation
  • Transportation vehicle/arrow board
  • Traffic control devices
  • Variable message signs
  • Responsive traffic signal control systems

Firefighting

  • Fire and Rescue (major)
  • Law Enforcement/ Transportation (minor)
   

Minor Spill Mitigation and Cleanup

  • Transportation
  • Plugs/plug materials
  • Containment devices
  • Absorbent materials
 

Crash Investigation

  • Law Enforcement
 
  • Total station surveying equipment
  • Photogrammetry

Victim Relocation

  • Transportation (with Law Enforcement/Medical Examiner consent)
   

Vehicle or Debris Removal

  • Transportation
  • Transportation vehicle/push bumper
  • Front end loader
  • Dump truck
  • Sweeper
 

Motorist Assistance

Motorist assistance (i.e., replacing a flat tire, performing minor mechanical repairs, providing water or gasoline) is most often provided by law enforcement or transportation agencies through routine or specially established roving patrols.

Utilization of Appropriate Personnel

Motorist assistance tasks typically rank low in priority for law enforcement personnel given the breadth of their duties related to enforcing and investigating criminal activity. Similarly, these tasks may rank low in priority with transportation personnel who are not tasked exclusively with performing these functions (i.e., if they are also tasked with performing broader maintenance-related activities). Personnel who are dedicated to providing motorist assistance (i.e., as a service or courtesy patrol) may provide these services most effectively. Law enforcement personnel, who receive specialized training in criminal law, investigatory procedures, and the use of firearms, may be underutilized in this capacity. Transportation personnel, whose nature and extent of training most closely aligns with the required motorist assistance functions, may provide these services most efficiently.

Utilization of Appropriate Equipment

Use of standard law enforcement vehicles (i.e., police cruisers) to provide motorist assistance may underutilize specialized vehicle features designed to support criminal enforcement, pursuit, transport, documentation, etc. Conversely, storage capacity limitations may restrict the extent motorists assistance services are provided (i.e., provision of gas or water, mechanical repair, etc.). Transportation vehicles that are not exclusively dedicated to providing motorist assistance services are similarly challenged (i.e., over-equipped to respond to broader maintenance-related tasks, but under-equipped to respond to motorist assistance needs), but provide several advantages over the use of standard law enforcement vehicles. The cost of a fully-equipped transportation maintenance vehicle is typically less than that of a fully-equipped law enforcement cruiser. In addition, these vehicles typically provide additional storage capacity to allow for greater responsiveness to motorist assistance needs.

Transportation or law enforcement agencies that provide dedicated motorist assistance (i.e., as a service or courtesy patrol) may opt to invest in and operate appropriately sized and equipped vehicles designed specifically to support motorist assistance. This strategy would enhance the effectiveness of motorist assistance and may reduce overall pubic agency equipment costs.

Dispatch and Response

The dispatch of appropriate resources to the scene and the expediency with which those resources reach the scene are dependent upon a number of factors including the amount and accuracy of information relayed to responders regarding the incident circumstances, the location and availability of response resources, and the level of traffic congestion and availability of alternative access routes. The dispatch of inappropriate resources to the scene or any delays encountered in getting those resources to the scene extends the overall duration of the incident and results in subsequent inefficiencies in the use of public agency resources.

Utilization of Appropriate Technology

A number of technologies have been developed and are currently utilized to ensure appropriate dispatch and expedient response of resources to the incident scene. Closed-circuit television systems, typically installed and maintained by transportation agencies, can support broader dispatch activities for multiple responders if the images are made available through common traffic management centers or through less formal image exchange arrangements. Access to images of the incident prior to arriving on-scene supports both the dispatch of appropriate equipment (i.e., heavy-duty wrecker) and quicker dispatch of resources (i.e., instant tow dispatch). Use of automatic vehicle location and geographic information system technologies can identify and mobilize resources that are closest in proximity to the incident scene, reducing overall travel times. Traffic signal priority systems can reduce delay for emergency vehicles along signalized arterials en route to the incident scene.

Scene Protection

Prior to establishing or as an ongoing supplement to on-scene traffic control, incident responders will commonly use their response vehicles upstream of the incident to protect the scene from approaching traffic.

Utilization of Appropriate Equipment

Fire and rescue vehicles are commonly used to protect the incident scene because of their large size and conspicuity. However, a significant cost may be incurred if these specially designed and equipped vehicles are struck by an approaching vehicle.

Law enforcement vehicles, equipped with light bars, are also used to protect the scene. Use of law enforcement vehicles—if observed early—may illicit a greater cooperation from approaching motorists (i.e., reduction in speed, earlier lane change/merge activity, etc.) if they suspect the potential for a citation, but because of their smaller size, these vehicles incur a greater amount of damage if impacted by an approaching vehicle.

A higher level of efficiency and equal or higher effectiveness may be achieved by using a transportation vehicle, equipped with an arrow board, to protect the scene. The use of an arrow board not only provides conspicuity but also actionable direction for approaching motorists (i.e., merge left). Transportation vehicles are also often equipped with additional traffic control devices (i.e., cones, portable signs) that can be used concurrently to warn and guide approaching motorists, reducing the likelihood of an unintended collision with the response vehicles.

Utilization of Appropriate Technology

Portable intrusion alarm systems provide a technology-based alternative to the use of response vehicles for scene protection. Consisting of a sensing mechanism (based on infrared, microwave, or pneumatic tube technology) that forms a partial perimeter around the incident scene and an audible alarm that warns incident responders if an approaching vehicle inappropriately enters the scene, intrusion alarm systems provide effective scene protection at a significantly reduced cost (i.e., less than $4,000 per unit) when compared to the cost of fire and rescue, law enforcement, or transportation response vehicles.

Temporary Traffic Control

The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (2003)10 defines appropriate standards and guidelines for the control (i.e., traffic diversions, tapered lane closures, and upstream warning devices to alert approaching traffic of the end of a queue) of traffic for major, intermediate, and minor incidents (Chapter 6I). Temporary traffic control serves to move motorists safely and expeditiously past or around the incident, to reduce the likelihood of secondary traffic crashes, and to preclude unnecessary use of the surrounding local road system. Within 15 minutes of arrival, responders should establish appropriate temporary traffic controls based on estimates of the magnitude and expected time duration of the incident and the expected vehicle queue length.

Utilization of Appropriate Personnel

Although all responders, regardless of discipline, are trained to provide temporary traffic control, the extent of training received differs significantly. For example, law enforcement personnel may receive a minimum of 480 hours of academy training focused on offensive and defensive tactics, criminal investigation, use of firearms, etc. Traffic control and direction procedures typically account for only two hours in the overall curriculum. Fire and rescue personnel receive a similar level of traffic control training. By comparison, transportation personnel typically receive a minimum of 16 hours of traffic control training, allowing them to perform these functions most effectively and efficiently.

Utilization of Appropriate Equipment

Transportation agencies provide a second distinct advantage in the provision of temporary traffic control. Both law enforcement and fire and rescue vehicles suffer from storage capacity constraints. Law enforcement vehicles (i.e., cruisers) are relatively small in size and designed for passenger rather than equipment transport. Fire and rescue vehicles are larger, but provide little excess storage capacity once fully equipped with hoses, pumping systems, ladders, axes, ventilators, etc. to support their unique functions.

Comparatively, transportation vehicles are designed and equipped to directly perform traffic control functions in support of routine maintenance activities, construction activities, or incidents. Transportation vehicles are typically equipped with an arrow board and traffic control devices (i.e., cones, portable signs, etc.). Transportation personnel also have direct access to additional traffic control devices not immediately carried on the vehicle. Separate trailers carrying additional cones, barrels, static signs, or portable variable or dynamic message signs can be requested and appropriately deployed at the incident scene. Improvement in the effectiveness and efficiency of temporary traffic control functions, as performed by transportation agencies, is highly dependent on the ability to mobilize transportation personnel and equipment quickly.

Detour Management

When an incident blocks one or more lanes of travel, motorists at or approaching the incident scene either voluntarily detour or are directed to alternate routes by incident responders. Alternate routes are commonly lower level, parallel roadways (i.e., signalized arterials, collectors, etc.) that are not designed to carry the same volume of traffic as the affected roadway. As such, traffic flow along the detour must be actively managed to prevent excessive delay and/or secondary incidents.

Utilization of Appropriate Personnel

Responsibility for establishing and maintaining detour routes typically rests cooperatively with law enforcement and transportation agencies. Transportation personnel typically receive a minimum of 16 hours of traffic control training, which includes proper procedures for establishing detour routes. Law enforcement personnel receive significantly less training in traffic control procedures. To maintain traffic flow along the alternate route, law enforcement or personnel may provide positive traffic control using officers staged at key locations (i.e., intersections) and/or may access fixed, alternate signal timing plans (i.e., to allow increased “green time” in the parallel direction) for isolated signalized intersections along the route.

Utilization of Appropriate Equipment

Transportation vehicles are typically equipped with an arrow board and traffic control devices (i.e., cones, portable signs, etc.). Transportation personnel also have direct access to additional traffic control devices not immediately carried on the vehicle. Separate trailers carrying additional cones, barrels, static signs, or portable variable or dynamic message signs can be requested and appropriately deployed at the incident scene. Use of properly deployed traffic control devices, including static and variable or dynamic message signing, can release law enforcement personnel tasked with providing advance warning and reducing approach speeds, closing critical access points or on-ramps, etc.

Utilization of Appropriate Technology

To maintain traffic flow along the alternate route, law enforcement or personnel may provide positive traffic control using officers staged at key locations (i.e., intersections) and/or may access fixed, alternate signal timing plans (i.e., to allow increased “green time” in the parallel direction) for isolated signalized intersections along the route. Depending on the level of instrumentation along alternate routes, transportation personnel may be able to access more sophisticated traffic signal control systems that are responsive to real-time traffic demand, improving overall traffic flow on the roadway network. Use of responsive traffic signal control systems can release law enforcement personnel tasked with performing positive traffic control or signal timing plan adjustments for isolated signalized intersections along the detour route.

Firefighting

A motor vehicle contains flammable liquids (i.e., gasoline, oil), solid combustibles (i.e., upholstery), and multiple potential sources of ignition (i.e., electrical short circuits, fuel leakages onto hot exhaust systems). Roughly two-thirds of highway vehicle fires are caused by some form of mechanical or electrical failure; with electrical wire, cable insulation, flammable or combustible liquid or gas as the first item ignited.11

Utilization of Appropriate Personnel

Fire and rescue personnel are most highly trained in firefighting capabilities. Through classroom instruction and practical training, the recruits study firefighting and suppression techniques for a variety of fire types, including flammable liquid and cargo tank fires, and are trained in vehicle extrication and rescue, hazardous materials control, and emergency medical procedures, including first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Both law enforcement and transportation personnel are commonly equipped with fire extinguishers to manage small-scale fires. If the fire can be fully mitigated through transportation or law enforcement personnel response—whoever is first to arrive on-scene—the cost of mobilizing fire and rescue personnel and equipment could be saved.

Minor Spill Mitigation and Cleanup

Minor spills from motor vehicles are generally petroleum products, and most commonly are crank-case engine oil, gasoline, or diesel fuel, but may also include coolants and transmission, brake, hydraulic, or other fluids. These may originate from the engine, drive train, fuel tanks, wheel assemblies, compressors, air handlers, or any component of the vehicle, including tractor and trailer as applicable. With respect to TIM operations, spilled motor vehicle fluids intrinsic to the operation of the vehicle are distinguished from hazardous cargo or hazardous substance spills. Typically, absorbed vehicle fluids rarely fail Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedures (TCLP) and thus are usually not hazardous wastes.12

Utilization of Appropriate Personnel

Fire and rescue and transportation personnel—as well as private towing and recovery, contractor, and responsible party personnel—are trained for mitigation and cleanup of small spills (i.e., lubricants, fuels). Responders should have Right-to-Know information (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29: Labor § 1910.1200 Hazard Communication)13 for handling these motor vehicle fluids and have completed at least the Awareness level of hazardous material training.

Considering public agency personnel only, transportation personnel may be mobilized more efficiently for such a cleanup if fire and rescue personnel are not otherwise required to be on the scene. If both are required to be on the scene, the performance of spill mitigation and cleanup tasks by transportation personnel would release fire and rescue personnel to focus on other tasks for which they are uniquely trained, such as vehicle extrication.

Utilization of Appropriate Equipment

Properly equipped responders, regardless of discipline, can take prompt action to stop the spill at its source; contain and limit the size of the spill; limit the damage to the pavement surface; and prevent any flammable material from catching fire, reducing the overall duration of the incident.

Premixed high-absorption polymer/bentonite materials (e.g., Plug N’ Dike™), that adhere to any wet, dry, or uneven surface, are most commonly used by fire and rescue and transportation agencies to plug a motor vehicle fluid leak at its source. Pre-cut wooden plugs can also be used to mitigate the impacts of a spill. Pails, buckets, kiddy pools, as well as hand transfer pumps, can be used to contain and limit the amount of motor vehicle fluids reaching the roadway. Booms, socks, topsoil, or other material can be used to contain any on-road spilled material through diking or berming. To clean-up motor vehicle fluids that reach the roadway, absorbent materials such as granular absorbents or vermiculite, floor sweep, peat moss, pads and booms, clay, or topsoil can be used. In limited situations, sand can also be used, but generally provides better adhesion (i.e., increased friction) than absorption. If immediately available, a light dusting of Portland Cement Concrete provides an alternate method for addressing the thin film that may remain after absorbents are used.12

If larger quantities of containment or cleanup materials (i.e., topsoil, peat moss, clay) are required, transportation agencies are better equipped to respond efficiently and effectively.

Crash Investigation

Law enforcement agencies are typically responsible for crash investigation, documenting all pertinent physical evidence and details at the incident scene. Traditional methods for capturing this information include the triangulation method and the coordinate or base tape method. The triangulation method relies on two stationary points. For each object to be documented, two measurements are required: the distance from the object to the first and second reference points, respectively. Either a measuring tape or wheel is used to collect the measurements. The coordinate or base tape method relies on a base or reference tape that is laid through or adjacent to the incident scene and a reference point along this tape. For each object to be documented, three measurements are noted: the distance along the base tape measured from the reference point, the distance perpendicular from the base tape (measures with a second measuring tape or wheel, and the direction of the object from the base tape. Traditional crash investigation methods require substantial time and manpower to properly investigate serious vehicular crashes and document on-scene data.

Utilization of Appropriate Technology

Various types of technology have been demonstrated to dramatically reduce incident duration while increasing the quality and quantity of measurements captured.

Total Station Surveying Equipment (TSSE) uses an infrared electronic distance meter combined with a rod-mounted prism to automatically measure horizontal distance to an object; a theodolite to measure horizontal angle; and an internal level to measure vertical rise. These measurements can be obtained simultaneously and recorded automatically. Early demonstration studies of TSSE indicated:

  • a decrease in the crash investigation time of 33 percent, a twofold increase in the number of measurements obtained, and a decrease in law enforcement manpower required of 50 percent 14 and
  • a decrease in the crash investigation time of 54 percent, a decrease in average incident clearance time of 51 minutes, and a 70 percent increase in the number of measurements obtained per hour.15

Photogrammetry, the technique of measuring objects from photographs or digital images, provides an alternative to TSSE for crash investigation and reconstruction by law enforcement agencies. Close range photogrammetry involves three steps: taking photographs, measuring the photographs, and processing the measurements to produce an accurate diagram. First, photographs are taken of the incident scene with key and relevant objects designated with evidence markers. In order to obtain a three-dimensional representation of the scene, these markers must be included in at least three different photographs taken at wide angles. One scale measurement must also be taken at the scene; normally, an object of known scale is simply placed in the scene. In the office, the pictures are imported into specialized software that develops measurements, scale diagrams, and computer-generated pictures.16

Photogrammetry equipment has a lower capital cost than that of TSSE, resulting in either a reduction in agency cost or the ability to procure additional units for the same cost. A photogrammetry package, including a quality camera, evidence markers, analysis software, and a drawing program, can cost $3,000 to $4,000. TSSE, including the instrument and field equipment and drawing package, can easily cost upward of $8,600 to $10,000.16 Having more crash investigation units available would reduce the response time to the scene of an incident, further reducing the resulting delay.

Victim Relocation

Traffic incidents involving fatalities—requiring law enforcement investigation and additional response by the county medical examiner—often result in extended lane or roadway closures. When responding to fatality traffic incidents, it is important to balance the need for thorough investigations into the cause of death, with the need to minimize responder exposure to danger, minimize risk of secondary incidents involving the motoring public, respect the dignity and privacy of the decedent and the decedent’s family, and restore the flow of traffic.

Legislation in several states allows and encourages relocation of the victim out of the roadway following the arrival of the medical examiner on-scene to prevent further harm to the victim or survivors of the incident, incident responders, and/or the motoring public. In some states, such as Tennessee and Texas, the victim is allowed to be relocated by law enforcement personnel prior to the arrival of the medical examiner on the scene with emergency medical services personnel able to provide certification of death on-site.

The extent of victim relocation varies; some programs encourage relocation to the morgue or other off-site location while some encourage relocation just off the roadway.

Utilization of Appropriate Personnel

For victim relocation just off the roadway, transportation personnel—acting only under express mutual consent from law enforcement and medical examiner agencies—may provide the greatest efficiency. If the victim is still inside of the vehicle, transportation personnel can push or tow the vehicle and victim out of the travel lane or off of the shoulder to a nearby location that is safer and less visible to passing motorists. If the victim is no longer in the vehicle, transportation personnel can remove the deceased to a location well off of the shoulder. The use of transportation personnel for on-site victim relocation affords law enforcement personnel the opportunity to begin the crash investigation process, for which they are uniquely trained. For victim relocation to an off-site location some distance from the incident scene, the use of private transport and/or towing and recovery contractors may be required. Longer transport distances may require accompanying law enforcement personnel to preserve the chain of evidence.

Vehicle and Debris Removal

Incident-involved vehicles range in size from motorcycles to multi-trailer trucks. Although larger, heavier vehicles, and/or vehicles that have become entangled with the roadway infrastructure, require specialty response equipment to clear, most vehicles can be expeditiously moved from the travel lane or off of the shoulder using push bumper equipped response vehicles or standard tow vehicles.

The resultant debris left in the roadway following an incident is similarly variable, ranging from minor involved vehicle appurtenances to entire truckloads of bulk materials (i.e., sand, gravel, etc.) or perishable and non-perishable cargo (i.e., livestock, produce, electronics, etc.).

Utilization of Appropriate Personnel

Vehicle and debris removal is most often the responsibility of law enforcement or transportation personnel, either directly using their own personnel and equipment or through the dispatch of private towing and recovery personnel. Personnel from both law enforcement and transportation agencies are trained and experienced in the safe use of push bumpers and/or towing packages to quickly clear vehicles from the roadway and are trained to be cautious when working in moving-traffic environments to provide debris cleanup. Use of transportation personnel for vehicle and debris removal would release law enforcement personnel to focus on other tasks for which they are uniquely trained, such as crash investigation for the current incident, or would allow them to return into service more quickly to perform duties elsewhere.

Utilization of Appropriate Equipment

Typically, law enforcement and transportation agencies utilize vehicles equipped with push bumpers or limited tow capabilities intended to support the quick clearance of vehicles from the roadway. Law enforcement vehicles (i.e., cruisers) equipped with push bumpers may be more likely to incur damage than transportation vehicles (i.e., medium or heavy duty pickup trucks) when removing involved vehicles from the roadway because of size and design differences. For debris removal, particularly following cargo spills, transportation agencies are uniquely equipped with front end loaders, dump trucks, sweepers, etc., to efficiently and effectively remove large quantities of debris from the roadway.

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