TRAFFIC INCIDENT MANAGEMENT IN HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SPILLS IN INCIDENT CLEARANCE
9.0 GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Chemical Hazards Response Information System (CHRIS) Code – The CHRIS Manual contains 3-letter codes used by the U.S. Coast Guard to identify individual chemicals.
Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations (CAMEO) – Developed by NOAA and the EPA, CAMEO is a suite of software programs that supports a number of information management functions, such as retrieval of chemical-specific information to support emergency response activities, threat zone calculation and plotting for risk assessment, organization and management of EPCRA information, and storage and computer display of area maps. More information about CAMEO is available on the NOAA Office of Response and Restoration Web site. (response.restoration.noaa.gov/cameo).
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) –The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, also known as the Superfund, is a framework for federal involvement in response and clean-up activities following hazardous substance releases. More information is available at http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/cercla.htm.
Department of Transportation (DOT) Hazard Label – Required DOT hazard warning label for chemicals (e.g., "Flammable Liquid," "Corrosive").
Extremely Hazardous Substance (EHS) – EHS chemicals have been identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as particular toxic threats. They are listed under EPCRA in the appendices to 40 CFR 355, Emergency Planning and Notification.
Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) – The EPCRA (also known as Title III of SARA) defines 360 chemicals as extremely hazardous substances whose release from facilities require planning for and reporting of. More information is available at http://www.epa.gov/emergencies/content/cameo/help/Chapter85.html#913330.
Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHS) – EHS chemicals have been identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as particular toxic threats. They are listed under EPCRA in the appendices to 40 CFR § 355, Emergency Planning and Notification.
Facility – Defined in Section 302 of EPCRA as all buildings, equipment, structures, and other stationary items located on a single site or on contiguous or adjacent sites and which are owned or operated by the same person (or by any person who controls, is controlled by, or under common control with, such person). For purposes of emergency release notification, the term also includes motor vehicles, rolling stock, and aircraft.
Hazard Category – Five categories of hazardous chemicals are defined in 29 CFR § 1910.1200. They include immediate (acute) and delayed (chronic) health hazards as well as fire, sudden release of pressure, and reactive hazards. CAMEO's Chemicals Inventory records contain checkboxes for all of these hazard categories.
Hazard Class – One of nine categories of hazardous materials used on DOT hazard labels. The hazard class indicates the highest hazard of a given material (e.g., Explosives or Poison Gas). While some materials meet the criteria for more than one class, each material is assigned just one class.
Hazardous Material – A substance or material that the Secretary of Transportation has determined is capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce, and has designated as hazardous under section 5103 of Federal hazardous materials transportation law (49 U.S.C. 5103). The term includes hazardous substances, hazardous wastes, marine pollutants, elevated temperature materials, materials designated as hazardous in the Hazardous Material Table (see 49 CFR 172.1.101), and materials that meet the defining criteria for hazard classes and divisions in part 173 of subchapter C of this chapter.
Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) –IDLH is a level of concern for adult workers. It is an estimate of the highest concentration from which escape is possible without permanent injury. The IDLHs were established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). More information is available at www.cdc.gov/niosh.
Level of Concern (LOC) – Exhibits the threshold concentration of an airborne pollutant, usually the concentration above which a hazard to people is believed to exist.
Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) – A committee appointed by the State Emergency Response Commission (SERC), as required by EPCRA. The LEPC’s purpose is first to design, then to regularly review and update a comprehensive emergency plan for an emergency planning district. More information is available at http://www.epa.gov/emergencies/content/cameo/help/Chapter85.html#945377.
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) – LEL, also known as lower flammability limit is the lowest concentration of a flammable vapor in air at which explosion or combustion can occur.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) – LPG is a mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) – These are product data sheets prepared by the manufacturer or marketer of a hazardous material under Occupational Safety and Health Administration Regulation 29 CFR § 1910.1200. These data sheets describe products, their hazards, and safe handling and response procedures.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) – This is a private, non-profit organization that produces technical data related to fire protection and prevention, including the widely used "NFPA diamond" containing codes representing chemical hazards. More information is available at www.nfpa.org.
NFPA Diamond – This standard placard is used to identify the level of chemical hazard at a fixed location or in a transported container.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) – This federal agency is responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related disease and injury. NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). More information is available at www.cdc.gov/niosh.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) – NOAA uses the role of the oceans, coasts, and atmosphere in the global ecosystem to make social and economic decisions for the environment. More information is available at www.noaa.gov.
National Response Center (NRC) – This is the central federal clearinghouse for information on hazardous chemical spills and other oil or hazardous substance releases. Responsible parties should contact the NRC in order to fulfill reporting requirements for spills of oil and hazardous substances (hotline: 1-800-424-8802).
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) – This agency within the U. S. Department of Labor is responsible for ensuring worker safety and health in the workplace. More information is available at www.osha.gov.
Response Information Data Sheets (RIDS) –These are a set of detailed descriptions of chemical properties, hazards, and emergency response information in the OSHA Chemical Library records.
Reportable Quantity (RQ) – The quantity of a hazardous substance or extremely hazardous substance that, if released, must be reported to the National Response Center, the State Emergency Response Commission, and the community emergency coordinator for areas likely to be affected by the release. More information is available at http://www.epa.gov/emergencies/content/cameo/help/Chapter85.html#913379.
State – Any State of the United States, as well as the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the United States Virgin Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and any other territory or possession over which the United States has jurisdiction.
State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) – This is a commission appointed by each state governor under EPCRA. A SERC designates emergency planning districts, appoints local emergency planning committees (LEPCs), supervises and coordinates the activities of planning committees, reviews emergency plans, receives chemical release notifications, and establishes procedures for receiving and processing requests from the public for information.
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) – Title III of SARA is also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA).
U.S. Department of Transportation (US DOT) – U.S. Department of Transportation was established by an act of Congress on October 15, 1966. More information is available at www.dot.gov.
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) – The EPA was established by Congress in 1970 to protect human health and the environment. More information is available at www.epa.gov.
U.S. National Response Team (NRT) – This organization is a planning, policy, and coordinating body consisting of representatives from 16 federal agencies with interest and expertise in emergency response to pollution incidents. The NRT provides national level policy guidance prior to an incident and can provide assistance during an incident. More information is available at http://www.nrt.org/.