Income-Based Equity Impacts of Congestion Pricing—A Primer
There are three principal types of equity considerations that relate to the distribution of benefits and burdens of toll or congestion-pricing projects:
This primer focuses on the first type of equity—income equity. Equity concerns with regard to income have often been raised about congestion pricing. The benefits of congestion pricing may not be distributed equally among all users. High-income users are more likely to remain on the highway, pay the congestion fee, and benefit from a faster trip. Low-income users may be worse off if they choose other less-expensive times, routes, or modes. When public use of infrastructure assets is deliberately made more expensive at certain times, low-income people and those concerned about their welfare may raise legitimate concerns about equity.
Toll roads impact environmental justice in at least two ways: impacts from the alignment and impacts from the ability to take advantage of better service. This primer focuses on the second impact—the ability to take advantage of better service—because the focus is on congestion pricing as applied to existing facilities. This primer presents information on the low-income equity issue in three sections as follows:
The VPP Program was established by the U.S. Congress as the Congestion Pricing Pilot Program in 1991. It was subsequently renamed the VPP program under Section 1216 (a) of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) in 1998, and continued through the 2005 Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU).
The UPA Program was announced by U.S. DOT in May 2006 and was followed by the CRD
United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration