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This publication is an archived publication and replaced with the Signal Timing Manual - Second Edition.

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.


2. Government Accession No.

3. Recipient's Catalog No.

4. Title and Subtitle

Traffic Signal Timing Manual

5. Report Date

June 2008

6. Performing Organization Code

7. Author(s)

Principal Investigator: Peter Koonce

Co-Authors:  Lee Rodegerdts, Kevin Lee, Shaun Quayle, Scott Beaird, Cade Braud, Jim Bonneson, Phil Tarnoff, and Tom Urbanik

8. Performing Organization Report No.

Project 7257

9. Performing Organization Name and Address

Kittelson & Associates, Inc.
610 SW Alder Street, Suite 700
Portland, OR  97205

Subconsultants: Texas Transportation Institute, University of Maryland, Purdue University, Siemens ITS, Tom Urbanik II, PE

10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)

11. Contract or Grant No.

Contract No. DTFH61-98-C-00075,

Task Order No. B98C75-009

12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590

13. Type of Report and Period Covered

Final Report
March 2006 to June 2008

14. Sponsoring Agency Code


15. Supplementary Notes

Eddie Curtis ( was the Technical Representative for the Federal Highway Administration.

Project focus group members contributed significantly to document organization, content, and exhibits: Michael Kyte, University of Idaho; Ziad Sabra, Sabra, Wang & Associates; James Pond, Monroe County (NY); Jim Poston, Regional Transportation Commission (Reno, NV), Rick Denney, Iteris; Bruce Zvaniga, City of Toronto; Woody Hood, Maryland State Highway Administration; Bill Kloos, City of Portland (OR); Denny Eyler, SRF Consulting; Avery Rhoades, City of Glendale (AZ); Sean Skehan, Los Angeles Department of Transportation (CA); and Susan Langdon, Savant Group.

In addition, many staff members of FHWA participated as focus group members and/or provided comments throughout the project, including Ed Fok, John Halkias, Paul Olson, Mike Schauer, Fred Ranck, and Scott Wainwright.

16. Abstract

This report serves as a comprehensive guide to traffic signal timing and documents the tasks completed in association with its development. The focus of this document is on traffic signal control principles, practices, and procedures. It describes the relationship between traffic signal timing and transportation policy and addresses maintenance and operations of traffic signals. It represents a synthesis of traffic signal timing concepts and their application and focuses on the use of detection, related timing parameters, and resulting effects to users at the intersection. It discusses advanced topics briefly to raise awareness related to their use and application.

17. Key Words

Signalized Intersections, Traffic Signal Timing, Congestion, Cycle Lengths, Throughput, Queue Management, Traffic Signal Timing, Detectors, Policy Based Signal Control, Maintenance and Operation of Traffic Signals

18. Distribution Statement

No Restrictions. This document is available to the public

19. Security Classification (of this report)


20. Security Classification (of this page)


21. No of Pages


22. Price


Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72)

Reproduction of completed page authorized