Office of Operations
21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

6.9 Training and Planning

  1. Conduct Training Exercises – “Training is extensive [for Paris Metro staff]. Each employee has a designated role in an emergency and exercises are regularly conducted by the Paris Fire Brigade (BSPP) in the Reseau Express Regional (RER) and Metro in which Regie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP) personnel participate, especially the ‘Rolling Stock Lifting Team.’ Coordination is facilitated by the fact that many members of the RATP safety team are former firemen. In addition, the RATP conducts 10 to 12 exercises a year involving all management and staff. Some of these are conducted during normal service; others are conducted at night when the system is shut down. At least once a year, there is a ‘major exercise’ which simulates an explosion, fire, or collision at a station or in a tunnel. The RATP has a history of dealing with terrorism so plans were in place and personnel were prepared. Remarkably, just twelve hours after the explosion, regular train service was restored and the terrorists’ goal, to create an atmosphere of uncertainty and turmoil, was denied. The experience of the St Michel bombing proves that planning and training pay off.”
    Protecting Surface Transportation Systems and Patrons from Terrorist Activities: Case Studies of Best Security Practices and a Chronology of Attack

  2. Prepare and Practice – “In fact, the report’s major conclusion is that New York’s transportation network worked as well as it did on September 11 because city and transportation authorities had taken an all-hazards approach to emergency preparedness, recognized the threat of terrorism, and continued the effort to prepare and practice for possible terrorist attacks.”
    Saving City Lifelines: Lessons Learned in the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

  3. Use Pre-Incident Planning – “Evacuation and Homeowners—Pre-Incident Planning—Respondents reported that pre-incident planning was the biggest factor in determining the efficiency and effectiveness of evacuations. Frequently, streams of evacuees congested the roads and made both evacuation and response difficult. They said that evacuations were more chaotic and dangerous in areas that lacked a plan. Respondents reported that even in areas that had conducted pre-incident planning, that there were incomplete plans for managing evacuation centers, reinstating utilities, or letting residents return to their homes. This caused unexpected problems for Incident Management Teams.”
    Southern California Firestorm 2003: Report for the Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center

February 7, 2006
Publication #FHWA–HOP-08-015