Office of Operations
21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

4.2.6 Special Needs

This section of the literature search addresses information found on special needs evacuees. It is subdivided into evacuation of special needs evacuees; accommodations for special needs evacuees; location of special needs shelters; evacuation of special needs facilities; and incidents involving special needs evacuees, evacuees with pets or animals, pedestrians, bicyclists, and truckers.

Findings from the literature search on special needs include:
  • Special needs evacuees with disabilities may require assistance during evacuations.
  • Special needs evacuees, such as the elderly, medical patients, and people without transport, require special assistance during evacuations.
  • Jail facilities and nursing homes are special needs facilities that have been evacuated.
  • At times, special needs evacuees are overlooked during the evacuation.
  • Special needs evacuees need shelters during evacuations.
  • People who are evacuated that have pets or animals that need to be left behind in the rush of an evacuation worry about their pets or animals.
  • The events of 9/11 in both New York City and Washington, DC, involved the evacuation of pedestrians. To move the evacuees out of the cities, public transit played a significant role; in addition, people also walked home.
There was very little information in the literature regarding the evacuation of bicyclists and truckers.

February 7, 2006
Publication #FHWA–HOP-08-015