IV. EXAMPLES IN THE U.S.
HOT Lanes on I-15 in San Diego
Since 1998, single-occupant vehicles pay a per-trip fee each time they use the I-15 HOT lanes. Tolls vary "dynamically" with the level of traffic demand on the lanes. Fees vary in 25-cent increments as often as every six minutes to help maintain free-flow traffic conditions on the HOV lanes. The project generates $2 million in revenue annually, about one-half of which is used to support transit service in the corridor.
SR 91 Express Lanes in Orange County, California
The four variably-priced express lanes in the median of the State Route 91 Freeway opened in December 1995. The toll schedule is adjusted every three months based on traffic observed over the three-month period. Speeds are 60 to 65 mph on the express lanes while congestion on the free lanes has reduced average peak hour speeds to no more than 15 to 20 mph. During the peak hour, which occurs on Friday afternoon (5-6 pm) in the eastbound direction, the two "managed" express lanes each carry almost twice as many vehicles per lane than the free lanes, because of the effect of severe congestion on vehicle throughput in the free lanes. Toll revenues have been adequate to pay for construction and operating costs. In fact, in 2003 the private company that had the franchise to build and operate the facility sold the franchise to the Orange County Transportation Authority for a profit.
Bridge Pricing in Lee County, Florida
Variable pricing began August 3, 1998, on the Midpoint and Cape Coral toll bridges in Lee County, Florida. Bridge travelers were offered a 50 percent discount on their toll if they traveled during specific discount periods and paid their toll electronically. The discount periods are 6:30 to 7 am, 9 to 11 am, 2 to 4 pm, and 6:30 to 7 pm. This toll structure was developed to encourage drivers to shift from peak periods to off-peak/discount periods.
Oregon Mileage-Based Pricing Test
The State of Oregon is studying an approach that would allow area-wide pricing with smaller expenditures on roadside infrastructure. The study is focusing on mileage-based fees and peak-period driving charges designed to reduce traffic during the most congested periods while at the same time raising revenue to replace existing fuel-based fees. GPS-based technology is being tested.